The deletion of yeaJ gene facilitates Escherichia coli escape from immune recognition

2021 ◽  
Xudong Wang ◽  
Xinguang Lin ◽  
Zhixin Wan ◽  
Shaohui Wang ◽  
Jiakun Zuo ◽  

Mammary gland-derived Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is an important pathogen causing dairy cow mastitis. Mammary gland mucosal immunity against infectious E. coli mainly depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Stimulator of interferon (IFN) gene (STING) has recently been the dominant mediator in reacting to bacterial intrusion and preventing inflammatory disorders. In this study, we firstly proved that diguanylate cyclase YeaJ relieves mouse mammary gland pathological damage by changing E. coli phenotypic and host STING-dependent innate immunity response. YeaJ decreases mammary gland circular vacuoles, bleeding and degeneration in mice. In addition, YeaJ participates in STING-IRF3 signaling to regulate inflammation in vivo . While in vitro , YeaJ decreases damage to macrophages (RAW264.7) but not to mouse mammary epithelial cells (EpH4-Ev). Consistent with the results in mouse mammary gland, yeaJ significantly activates STING/TBK1/IRF3 pathway in RAW264.7 as well. In conclusion, the deletion of yeaJ gene facilitates E. coli NJ17 escape from STING-dependent innate immunity recognition in vitro and in vivo . This study highlights a novel role for YeaJ in E. coli infection, which provides a better understanding of host-bacteria interactions and potential prophylactic strategies for infections. IMPORTANCE E. coli is the etiological agent of environmental mastitis in dairy cows, which cause massive financial losses worldwide. However, the pathophysiological role of yeaJ in the interaction between E. coli and host remains unclear. We found that YeaJ significantly influences various biological characteristics and suppresses severe inflammatory response as well as greater damage. YeaJ alleviates damage to macrophages (RAW264.7) and mouse mammary gland. Moreover, these effects of YeaJ are achieved at least partial by mediating the STING-IRF3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the deletion of yeaJ gene facilitates E. coli NJ17 escape from STING-dependent innate immunity recognition in vitro and in vivo. This study is the basis for further research to better understand host-bacteria interactions and provides potential prophylactic strategies for infections.

1990 ◽  
Vol 269 (3) ◽  
pp. 709-715 ◽  
H Hayashi ◽  
M K Owada ◽  
S Sonobe ◽  
K Domae ◽  
T Yamanouchi ◽  

Lipocortin I, a Ca2(+)-and phospholipid-binding protein without EF-hand structures, has many biological effects in vitro. Its actual role in vivo, however is unknown. We obtained and characterized five monoclonal antibodies to lipocortin I. Two of these monoclonal antibodies (L2 and L4-MAbs) reacted with the Ca(+)-bound form of lipocortin I, but not with the Ca2(+)-free form, both in vivo and in vitro. Lipocortin I required greater than or equal to 10 microM-Ca2+ to bind the two antibodies, and this Ca2+ requirement was not affected by phosphatidylserine. L2-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I and inhibited its binding to Escherichia coli membranes and to phosphatidylserine in vitro. L4-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I, but did not affect its binding to E. coli membranes or to phosphatidylserine. These findings indicated that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by lipocortin I was not simply due to removal or capping of the substrates in E. coli membranes. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence study using L2-MAb showed the actual existence of Ca2(+)-bound form of lipocortin I in vivo.

1996 ◽  
Vol 318 (2) ◽  
pp. 437-442 ◽  
Amanda E. I. PROUDFOOT ◽  
Laurence GOFFIN ◽  
Mark A PAYTON ◽  
Timothy N. C. WELLS ◽  

Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) catalyses the interconversion of mannose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The enzyme is a metalloenzyme which contains 1 mol of zinc per mol of enzyme. Heterologous expression of the cDNA coding for the Candida albicans enzyme in the prokaryotic host Escherichia coli results in an expression level of up to 30% of total E. coli protein. Ten percent of recombinant PMI is expressed in the soluble fraction and 90% in inclusion bodies. Inclusion of a high level of zinc in the fermentation medium resulted in a fourfold increase in soluble protein. Co-expression of the bacterial chaperones, GroES and GroEL, resulted in a proportional twofold increase in soluble PMI while causing an overall decrease in the PMI expression level. Folding denatured PMI in vitro required reductant and zinc ions. The yield of renatured protein was increased by folding in the presence of GroEL and DnaK in an ATP-independent manner. The refolding yield of denatured soluble enzyme from a guanidine solution was threefold higher than that of folding monomerized inclusion body protein solubilized in guanidine hydrochloride. This suggests that a proportion of recombinant protein expressed in E. coli inclusion bodies may be irreversibly denatured.

2006 ◽  
Vol 393 (3) ◽  
pp. 767-777 ◽  
Peng Guo ◽  
Liqiang Zhang ◽  
Hongjie Zhang ◽  
Yanming Feng ◽  
Guozhong Jing

RRF (ribosome recycling factor) consists of two domains, and in concert with EF-G (elongation factor-G), triggers dissociation of the post-termination ribosomal complex. However, the function of the individual domains of RRF remains unclear. To clarify this, two RRF chimaeras, EcoDI/TteDII and TteDI/EcoDII, were created by domain swaps between the proteins from Escherichia coli and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis. The ribosome recycling activity of the RRF chimaeras was compared with their wild-type RRFs by using in vivo and in vitro activity assays. Like wild-type TteRRF (T. tengcongensis RRF), the EcoDI/TteDII chimaera is non-functional in E. coli, but both wild-type TteRRF, and EcoDI/TteDII can be activated by coexpression of T. tengcongensis EF-G in E. coli. By contrast, like wild-type E. coli RRF (EcoRRF), TteDI/EcoDII is fully functional in E. coli. These findings suggest that domain II of RRF plays a crucial role in the concerted action of RRF and EF-G for the post-termination complex disassembly, and the specific interaction between RRF and EF-G on ribosomes mainly depends on the interaction between domain II of RRF and EF-G. This study provides direct genetic and biochemical evidence for the function of the individual domains of RRF.

1989 ◽  
Vol 258 (1) ◽  
pp. 187-192 ◽  
R Brandsch ◽  
V Bichler ◽  
B Krauss

Expression of the 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase (6-HDNO) gene from Arthrobacter oxidans cloned into Escherichia coli showed a marked temperature-dependence. Transformed E. coli cells grown at 30 degrees C exhibited a several-fold higher 6-HDNO activity than did cells grown at 37 degrees C. This effect did not depend on the promoter used for expression of the cloned gene in E. coli, nor was it an effect of 6-HDNO mRNA instability at 37 degrees C. Studies performed in vivo and in vitro revealed that an increased susceptibility of apo-6-HDNO to proteolytic attack at 37 degrees C was responsible for the observed phenomenon. Extracts from cells grown at 37 degrees C showed on Western blots a decrease in immunologically detectable 6-HDNO polypeptide when compared with extracts from cells grown at 30 degrees C. The 6-HDNO polypeptide is covalently modified by attachment of the cofactor FAD to a histidine residue. It could be shown that covalent flavinylation of the apoenzyme in vitro, i.e. formation of holoenzyme, by incubation of cell extracts with FAD and phosphoenolpyruvate protected the 6-HDNO polypeptide from degradation at 37 degrees C. Of a variety of proteinase inhibitors tested only the cysteine-proteinase inhibitor L-3-trans-carboxyoxiran-2-carbonyl-L-leucylagmatine (E64) prevented degradation, by up to 70%, of the apoenzyme.

1988 ◽  
Vol 253 (3) ◽  
pp. 637-643 ◽  
M Muller ◽  
J Martial ◽  
W G Verly

5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine triphosphate (Br-dUTP) and dTTP are used interchangeably for DNA synthesis in vitro by the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. When DNA containing Br-dUMP instead of dTMP at a few preselected sites is transfected into competent bacteria, no mutation occurs, indicating that in vivo E. coli DNA polymerase always places a dAMP residue in front of any unrepaired Br-dUMP residue. On the other hand, in vitro Br-dUTP can also replace dCTP, but only with difficulty: when dCTP is absent, Br-dUMP can be forced in front of a dGMP residue, but the Klenow polymerase pauses before and after addition of Br-dUMP. Transfection into E. coli of the substituted DNA leads to the expected G→A transitions. These mutations can easily be targeted by using a suitable primer and the correctly chosen mix of deoxynucleoside triphosphates containing Br-dUTP. When Br-dUMP has been placed in front of a dGMP residue, the mutation yield is not 100%, showing a partial repair of the transfected DNA before it is replicated. Advantage can be taken of this partial repair to prepare a set of different mutations within a target region in a single experiment.

2019 ◽  
Vol 116 (4) ◽  
pp. 1251-1260 ◽  
Glen E. Cronan ◽  
Elena A. Kouzminova ◽  
Andrei Kuzminov

In vitro, purified replisomes drive model replication forks to synthesize continuous leading strands, even without ligase, supporting the semidiscontinuous model of DNA replication. However, nascent replication intermediates isolated from ligase-deficientEscherichia colicomprise only short (on average 1.2-kb) Okazaki fragments. It was long suspected that cells replicate their chromosomal DNA by the semidiscontinuous mode observed in vitro but that, in vivo, the nascent leading strand was artifactually fragmented postsynthesis by excision repair. Here, using high-resolution separation of pulse-labeled replication intermediates coupled with strand-specific hybridization, we show that excision-proficientE. coligenerates leading-strand intermediates >10-fold longer than lagging-strand Okazaki fragments. Inactivation of DNA-repair activities, including ribonucleotide excision, further increased nascent leading-strand size to ∼80 kb, while lagging-strand Okazaki fragments remained unaffected. We conclude that in vivo, repriming occurs ∼70× less frequently on the leading versus lagging strands, and that DNA replication inE. coliis effectively semidiscontinuous.

1980 ◽  
Vol 85 (3) ◽  
pp. 405-413 ◽  
M. G. M. Rowland ◽  
T. J. Cole ◽  
Maura Tully ◽  
Jean M. Dolby ◽  
Pauline Honour

SUMMARYA one-year field-study has been carried out in a diarrhoea-endemic area in West Africa to determine the relationship between the bacteriostatic activity of fresh human milk for Escherichia coli in vitro and freedom from diarrhoea of the infant recipients of the milk. The specific contribution of E. coli gastroenteritis to gastrointestinal diseases of infants in general is not known, nor is its particular role in the Gambian infants studied. During the study period, however, both enteropathogenic and toxigenic strains of E. coli were isolated.The incidence of diarrhoea in Gambian infants of seven age-groups from 2 days to 12 months was not significantly correlated with the bacteriostatic activity of milk. This was due rather to absence of diarrhoea in babies fed on low-activity milk than illness in those receiving highly bacteriostatic milk. Indeed, very active milk appeared to protect recipients almost completely, including seven babies of over 3 months of age, five of them during the rainy season, when the risk was high. Babies receiving lower-activity milk experienced more diarrhoea. In a situation where diarrhoeal disease is multifactorial, field evaluation of the protective action by one antibacterial property of milk is difficult. A better understanding of in vivo protection is important, and the factors which have to be taken into account are discussed.

2019 ◽  
Vol 6 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. S287-S287
Geoffrey Cheminet ◽  
Patrice Nordmann ◽  
Francoise Chau ◽  
Nicolas Kieffer ◽  
Katell Peoc’h ◽  

Abstract Background A strategy used by bacterial strains to resist β-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) requiring zinc for activity. The use of a zinc chelator may restore carbapenem activity against MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. DMSA is a heavy metal chelator approved in humans with a satisfactory safety record. Our objective was to evaluate the activity of DMSA in combination with carbapenems, in vitro and in a fatal murine peritonitis model, against MBL-producing Escherichia coli. Methods Isogenic derivatives of wild-type E. coli CFT073 producing the MBL NDM-1, VIM-2, IMP-1, and the serine carbapenemases OXA-48 and KPC-3 were constructed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem were determined against each strain alone or in combination with DMSA. Mice were infected with E. coli CFT073 or NDM-1 and treated intraperitoneally for 24 hours with imipenem 100 mg/kg every 4 hours, DMSA 200 mg/kg every 4 hours, or both. Mice survival rates and bacterial counts in peritoneal fluid (PF) and spleen were assessed at 24 hours. Results In vitro, DMSA in combination with each carbapenem permitted a significant decrease of the MICs against all MBL-producing strains, in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum effect was found for the NDM-1 strain with a 6- to 8-fold MIC reduction, depending on the carbapenem used. NDM-1 strain became susceptible to carbapenems with concentrations of DMSA ≥6 mM. Increasing zinc concentrations above 1 mg/L (average human plasma concentration) did not alter this effect. No benefit of DMSA was observed against non-MBL strains. In vivo, when used alone, the DMSA regimen was not toxic in uninfected mice and ineffective against NDM-1-infected mice (100% mortality). Combination of imipenem and DMSA significantly reduced bacterial counts in PF and spleen as compared with imipenem alone (P < 0.001), and reduced mortality, although not significantly (11% vs. 37%, respectively, P = 0.12). No benefit of the combination was observed against CFT073. Conclusion DMSA is highly effective in vitro in reducing carbapenems MICs against MBL-producing E. coli and appears as a promising strategy in combination with carbapenems for the treatment of NDM-1-related infections. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

2014 ◽  
Vol 82 (5) ◽  
pp. 1801-1812 ◽  
Sylvia Kleta ◽  
Marcel Nordhoff ◽  
Karsten Tedin ◽  
Lothar H. Wieler ◽  
Rafal Kolenda ◽  

ABSTRACTEnteropathogenicEscherichia coli(EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probioticE. colistrain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While bothin vitroandin vivostudies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenicE. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenicE. coli(aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression.

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