Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity against Homologous and Heterologous Strains of Influenza Virus
ABSTRACT Recurrent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus pose the threat of pandemic spread of lethal disease and make it a priority to develop safe and effective vaccines. Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested to be a promising vaccine approach. However, VLP-induced immune responses, and their roles in inducing memory immune responses and cross-protective immunity have not been investigated. In this study, we developed VLPs containing influenza virus A/PR8/34 (H1N1) hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M1) proteins and investigated their immunogenicity, long-term cross-protective efficacy, and effects on lung proinflammatory cytokines in mice. Intranasal immunization with VLPs containing HA induced high serum and mucosal antibody titers and neutralizing activity against PR8 and A/WSN/33 (H1N1) viruses. Mice immunized with VLPs containing HA showed little or no proinflammatory lung cytokines and were protected from a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted PR8 or WSN viruses even 5 months postimmunization. Influenza VLPs induced mucosal immunoglobulin G and cellular immune responses, which were reactivated rapidly upon virus challenge. Long-lived antibody-secreting cells were detected in the bone marrow of immunized mice. Immune sera administered intranasally were able to confer 100% protection from a lethal challenge with PR8 or WSN, which provides further evidence that anti-HA antibodies are primarily responsible for preventing infection. Taken together, these results indicate that nonreplicating influenza VLPs represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of lethal influenza viruses.
Differential cellular immune responses between chickens and ducks to H9N2 avian influenza virus infection
An Adenovirus-Based Vaccine with a Double-Stranded RNA Adjuvant Protects Mice and Ferrets against H5N1 Avian Influenza in Oral Delivery Models
ABSTRACTAn oral gene-based avian influenza vaccine would allow rapid development and simplified distribution, but efficacy has previously been difficult to achieve by the oral route. This study assessed protection against avian influenza virus challenge using a chimeric adenovirus vector expressing hemagglutinin and a double-stranded RNA adjuvant. Immunized ferrets and mice were protected upon lethal challenge. Further, ferrets immunized by the peroral route induced cross-clade neutralizing antibodies, and the antibodies were selective against hemagglutinin, not the vector. Similarly, experiments in mice demonstrated selective immune responses against HA with peroral delivery and the ability to circumvent preexisting vector immunity.
A pseudotype baculovirus-mediated vaccine confers protective immunity against lethal challenge with H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice and chickens
Quick and improved immune responses to inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccine by purified active fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins
Abstract Background H9N2 Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) raises public health concerns and its eradication in poultry becomes even more important in preventing influenza. AJSAF is a purified active saponin fraction from the stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin. In this study, AJSAF was evaluated for the adjuvant potentials on immune responses to inactivated H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine (IH9V) in mice and chicken in comparison with commercially oil-adjuvant. Results AJSAF significantly induced faster and higher H9 subtype avian influenza virus antigen (H9–Ag)-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody titers in mice and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and IgY antibody levels in chicken immunized with IH9V. AJSAF also markedly promoted Con A-, LPS- and H9–Ag-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity. Furthermore, AJSAF significantly induced the production of both Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and transcription factors in splenocytes from the IH9V-immunized mice. Although oil-formulated inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccine (CH9V) also elicited higher H9–Ag-specific IgG and IgG1 in mice and HI antibody titer in chicken, this robust humoral response was later produced. Moreover, serum IgG2a and IgG2b antibody titers in CH9V-immunized mice were significantly lower than those of IH9V alone group. Conclusions AJSAF could improve antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and simultaneously trigger a Th1/Th2 response to IH9V. AJSAF might be a safe and efficacious adjuvant candidate for H9N2 avian influenza vaccine.
Comparison of cellular immune responses to avian influenza virus in two genetically distinct, highly inbred chicken lines
Negligible effect of chicken cytokine IL-12 integration into recombinant fowlpox viruses expressing avian influenza virus neuraminidase N1 on host cellular immune responses
In comparison to the extensive characterization of haemagglutinin antibodies of avian influenza virus (AIV), the role of neuraminidase (NA) as an immunogen is less well understood. This study describes the construction and cellular responses of recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFWPV) strain FP9, co-expressing NA N1 gene of AIV A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004, and chicken IL-12 gene. Our data shows that the N1 and IL-12 proteins were successfully expressed from the recombinants with 48 kD and 70 kD molecular weights, respectively. Upon inoculation into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 105 p.f.u. ml−1, levels of CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ populations were higher in the wild-type fowlpox virus FP9 strain, compared to those of rFWPV-N1 and rFWPV-N1-IL-12 at weeks 2 and 5 time points. Furthermore, rFWPV-N1-IL-12 showed a suppressive effect on chicken body weight within 4 weeks after inoculation. We suggest that co-expression of N1 with or without IL-12 offers undesirable quality as a potential AIV vaccine candidate.
Electroporation of Synthetic DNA Antigens Offers Protection in Nonhuman Primates Challenged with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
ABSTRACT Avian influenza highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that would allow for the rapid design and production of safe and effective vaccines. An ideal platform would be capable of inducing both protective antibodies and potent cellular immune responses. These potential advantages of DNA vaccines remain unrealized due to a lack of efficacy in large animal studies and in human trials. Questions remain regarding the potential utility of cellular immune responses against influenza virus in primates. In this study, by construct optimization and in vivo electroporation of synthetic DNA-encoded antigens, we observed the induction of cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses individually capable of providing protection from influenza virus infection in the rhesus macaque. These studies advance the DNA vaccine field and provide a novel, more tolerable vaccine with broad immunogenicity to avian influenza virus. This approach appears important for further investigation, including studies with humans.
H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Protein PB1 Enhances the Immune Responses of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells by Down-Regulating miR375
Characterization of Host Responses against a Recombinant Fowlpox Virus-Vectored Vaccine Expressing the Hemagglutinin Antigen of an Avian Influenza Virus
ABSTRACT There currently are commercial fowlpox virus (FPV)-vectored vaccines for use in chickens, including TROVAC-AIV H5, which expresses the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen of an avian influenza virus and can confer immunity against avian influenza in chickens. Despite the use of recombinant FPV (rFPV) for vaccine delivery, very little is known about the immune responses generated by these viruses in chickens. The present study was designed to investigate host responses to rFPV in vivo and in vitro. In cultured cells infected with TROVAC-AIV H5, there was an early increase in the expression of type I interferons (IFN), Toll-like receptors 3 and 7 (TLR3 and TLR7, respectively), TRIF, and MyD88, which was followed by a decrease in the expression of these genes at later time points. There also was an increase in the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, and beta-defensin genes at early time points postinfection. In chickens immunized with TROVAC-AIV H5, there was higher expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 at day 5 postvaccination in spleen of vaccinated birds than in that of control birds. We further investigated the ability of the vaccine to induce immune responses against the HA antigen and discovered that there was a cell-mediated response elicited in vaccinated chickens against this antigen. The findings of this study demonstrate that FPV-vectored vaccines can elicit a repertoire of responses marked by the early expression of TLRs, type I interferons, and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines associated with adaptive immune responses. This study provides a platform for designing future generations of rFPV-vectored vaccines.
Contributions of the Avian Influenza Virus HA, NA, and M2 Surface Proteins to the Induction of Neutralizing Antibodies and Protective Immunity
ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 causes severe disease and mortality in poultry. Increased transmission of H5N1 HPAIV from birds to humans is a serious threat to public health. We evaluated the individual contributions of each of the three HPAIV surface proteins, namely, the hemagglutinin (HA), the neuraminidase (NA), and the M2 proteins, to the induction of HPAIV-neutralizing serum antibodies and protective immunity in chickens. Using reverse genetics, three recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (rNDVs) were engineered, each expressing the HA, NA, or M2 protein of H5N1 HPAIV. Chickens were immunized with NDVs expressing a single antigen (HA, NA, and M2), two antigens (HA+NA, HA+M2, and NA+M2), or three antigens (HA+NA+M2). Immunization with HA or NA induced high titers of HPAIV-neutralizing serum antibodies, with the response to HA being greater, thus identifying HA and NA as independent neutralization antigens. M2 did not induce a detectable neutralizing serum antibody response, and inclusion of M2 with HA or NA reduced the magnitude of the response. Immunization with HA alone or in combination with NA induced complete protection against HPAIV challenge. Immunization with NA alone or in combination with M2 did not prevent death following challenge, but extended the time period before death. Immunization with M2 alone had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Thus, there was no indication that M2 is immunogenic or protective. Furthermore, inclusion of NA in addition to HA in a vaccine preparation for chickens may not enhance the high level of protection provided by HA.