# On a class of separable modules

A module [Formula: see text] is called [Formula: see text]-separable if every proper finitely generated submodule of [Formula: see text] is contained in a proper finitely generated direct summand of [Formula: see text]. Indecomposable [Formula: see text]-separable modules are shown to be exactly the simple modules. While direct summands of an [Formula: see text]-separable module do not inherit the property, in general, the question of the stability under direct sums is unanswered. But we obtain some partial answers. It is shown that any infinite direct sum of [Formula: see text]-separable modules is [Formula: see text]-separable. Also, we prove that if [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are [Formula: see text]-separable modules such that [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text]-projective, then [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text]-separable. We conclude the paper by providing some characterizations of several classes of rings in terms of [Formula: see text]-separable modules. Among others, we prove that the class of rings [Formula: see text] for which every (injective) [Formula: see text]-module is [Formula: see text]-separable is exactly that of semisimple rings.

A module [Formula: see text] is called coseparable ([Formula: see text]-coseparable) if for every submodule [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text] is finitely generated ([Formula: see text] is simple), there exists a direct summand [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is finitely generated. In this paper, we show that free modules are coseparable. We also investigate whether or not the ([Formula: see text]-)coseparability is stable under taking submodules, factor modules, direct summands, direct sums and direct products. We show that a finite direct sum of coseparable modules is not, in general, coseparable. But the class of [Formula: see text]-coseparable modules is closed under finite direct sums. Moreover, it is shown that the class of coseparable modules over noetherian rings is closed under finite direct sums. A characterization of coseparable modules over noetherian rings is provided. It is also shown that every lifting (H-supplemented) module is coseparable ([Formula: see text]-coseparable).

AbstractR is called a right WV-ring if each simple right R-module is injective relative to proper cyclics. If R is a right WV-ring, then R is right uniform or a right V-ring. It is shown that a right WV-ring R is right noetherian if and only if each right cyclic module is a direct sum of a projective module and a CS (complements are summands, a.k.a. ‘extending modules’) or noetherian module. For a finitely generated module M with projective socle over a V-ring R such that every subfactor of M is a direct sum of a projective module and a CS or noetherian module, we show M = X ⊕ T, where X is semisimple and T is noetherian with zero socle. In the case where M = R, we get R = S ⊕ T, where S is a semisimple artinian ring and T is a direct sum of right noetherian simple rings with zero socle. In addition, if R is a von Neumann regular ring, then it is semisimple artinian.

A module M over an associative ring R with unity is a QTAG module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. There are many fascinating properties of QTAG modules of which h-pure submodules and high submodules are significant. A submodule N is quasi-h-dense in M if M/K is h-divisible, for every h-pure submodule K of M, containing N. Here we study these submodules and obtain some interesting results. Motivated by h-neat envelope, we also define h-pure envelope of a submodule N as the h-pure submodule K⊇N if K has no direct summand containing N. We find that h-pure envelopes of N have isomorphic basic submodules, and if M is the direct sum of uniserial modules, then all h-pure envelopes of N are isomorphic.

The aim of the present article is to investigate the structure of rings [Formula: see text] satisfying the condition: for any family [Formula: see text] of simple right [Formula: see text]-modules, every essential extension of [Formula: see text] is a direct sum of lifting modules, where [Formula: see text] denotes the injective hull. We show that every essential extension of [Formula: see text] is a direct sum of lifting modules if and only if [Formula: see text] is right Noetherian and [Formula: see text] is hollow. Assume that [Formula: see text] is an injective right [Formula: see text]-module with essential socle. We also prove that if every essential extension of [Formula: see text] is a direct sum of lifting modules, then [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text]-injective. As a consequence of this observation, we show that [Formula: see text] is a right V-ring and every essential extension of [Formula: see text] is a direct sum of lifting modules for all simple modules [Formula: see text] if and only if [Formula: see text] is a right [Formula: see text]-V-ring.

Let G be a finite group and F a complete local noetherian commutative ring with residue field of characteristic p # 0. Let A(G) denote the representation algebra of G with respect to F. This is a linear algebra over the complex field whose basis elements are the isomorphism-classes of indecomposable finitely generated FG-representation modules, with addition and multiplication induced by direct sum and tensor product respectively. The two authors have separately found decompositions of A(G) as direct sums of subalgebras. In this note we show that the decompositions in one case have a common refinement given in the other's paper.

This paper proves that every direct summand N of a direct sum of indecomposable injective submodules of a module is the sum of a direct sum of indecomposable injective submodules and a sum of indecomposable injective submodules of Z2(N).

It is shown that a projective CS right module M over a ring R is a direct sum of uniform modules of composition lengths at most 2 if (i) every finitely generated direct summand of M is continuous and (ii) every non-zero M-singular right R-module contains a non-zero M-injective submodule. In particular, a right continuous ring R is semisimple if R is right weakly SI, that is, if every non-zero singular right R-module contains a non-zero injective submodule.

Hereditary rings have been extensively investigated in the literature after Kaplansky introduced them in the earliest 50’s. In this paper, we study the notion of a [Formula: see text]-Rickart module by utilizing the endomorphism ring of a module and using the recent notion of a Rickart module, as a module theoretic analogue of a right hereditary ring. A module [Formula: see text] is called [Formula: see text]-Rickart if every direct sum of copies of [Formula: see text] is Rickart. It is shown that any direct summand and any direct sum of copies of a [Formula: see text]-Rickart module are [Formula: see text]-Rickart modules. We also provide generalizations in a module theoretic setting of the most common results of hereditary rings: a ring [Formula: see text] is right hereditary if and only if every submodule of any projective right [Formula: see text]-module is projective if and only if every factor module of any injective right [Formula: see text]-module is injective. Also, we have a characterization of a finitely generated [Formula: see text]-Rickart module in terms of its endomorphism ring. Examples which delineate the concepts and results are provided.

A moduleMis⊕-supplemented if every submodule ofMhas a supplement which is a direct summand ofM. In this paper, we show that a quotient of a⊕-supplemented module is not in general⊕-supplemented. We prove that over a commutative ringR, every finitely generated⊕-supplementedR-moduleMhaving dual Goldie dimension less than or equal to three is a direct sum of local modules. It is also shown that a ringRis semisimple if and only if the class of⊕-supplementedR-modules coincides with the class of injectiveR-modules. The structure of⊕-supplemented modules over a commutative principal ideal ring is completely determined.

Abstract Let M be a right R-module. We call M Rad-D12, if for every sub- module N of M, there exist a direct summand K of M and an epimor- phism α : K → M/N such that Kererα ⊆ Rad(K). We show that a direct summand of a Rad-D12 module need not be a Rad-D12 module. We investigate completely Rad-D12 modules (modules for which every direct summand is a Rad-D12 module). We also show that a direct sum of Rad-D12 modules need not be a Rad-D12 module. Then we deal with some cases of direct sums of Rad-D12 modules.