scholarly journals Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil and Its Oxidative Stability

2010 ◽  
Vol 2010 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
N. El Boulifi ◽  
A. Bouaid ◽  
M. Martinez ◽  
J. Aracil

Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize biodiesel production process from corn oil. The process variables, temperature and catalyst concentration were found to have significant influence on biodiesel yield. The optimum combination derived via RSM for high corn oil methyl ester yield (99.48%) was found to be 1.18% wt catalyst concentration at a reaction temperature of55.6∘C. To determine how long biodiesel can safely be stored, it is desirable to have a measurement for the stability of the biodiesel against such oxidation. Storage time and oxygen availability have been considered as possible factors influencing oxidative instability. Biodiesel from corn oil was stored for a period of 30 months, and the physico-chemical parameters of samples were measured at regular interval of time. Results show that the acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), and viscosity (ν) increased while the iodine value (IV) decreased. These parameters changed very significantly when the sample was stored under normal oxygen atmosphere. However, theν, AV, and IV of the biodiesel sample which was stored under argon atmosphere were within the limit by the European specifications (EN 14214).

2016 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 385-393
Naima Al-Kharousi ◽  
Mohammed Al-Khusaibi ◽  
Ismail Al-Bulushi ◽  
Nejib Guizani ◽  
Mostafa Waly ◽  

Abstract In this study, oxidative stability of date-pits (i. e. Khalas variety) was investigated during storage as a function of temperature. The stability of date-pits oil was determined by measuring acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (PAV), tocopherol and oxidative stability index. Initial characteristics of oil were assessed by measuring its physico-chemical and melting characteristics, fatty acids composition and aflatoxin. Storage of date-pits caused highest reduction in linoleic acid (C18:2, ω6) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, ω9). AV, PV and PAV of the fresh oil were 1.41 mg KOH/g oil, 3.30 meq/kg oil and 0.60, respectively. These values increased linearly at slower rate in the case of 30 °C storage, while sharp rise was observed after 40 days in cases of 100 and 150 °C storage (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that date pits oil had a good oxidative and thermal stability and could thus be used to develop value-added food ingredients.

2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 586-592 ◽  
E.G. Al-Sakkari ◽  
S.T. El-Sheltawy ◽  
A. Soliman ◽  
I. Ismail

The most common method of biodiesel production is base catalyzed transesterification where alkaline materials, such as potassium hydroxide, are used as a catalyst. This paper presents a study of factors affecting biodiesel production from low free fatty acids (FFA) content waste vegetable oil through base catalyzed transesterification as well as the optimum reaction conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be a time of 60 min, catalyst loading of 1% of oil mass, mixing speed of 400 rpm and temperature of 65 °C. It also introduces a kinetic study of this reaction to determine the best model to fit the experimental data. First order model was found to be the best one to fit the early reaction stages while the second order model was the best to describe reaction kinetics in later stages. The stability of produced biodiesel was studied through determination of acid value and viscosity of stored biodiesel along three months.

Md. Golam Rasul ◽  
Bhaskar Chandra Majumdar ◽  
Faria Afrin ◽  
Mueena Jahan ◽  
Chunhong Yuan ◽  

Sun dried (T. fasciata) was stored with airtight polyethylene bags at room temperature to investigate the changes in physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics for 90 days. Sensory and physical (water reconstitution, pH) characteristics of dried T. fasciata showed that the product was acceptable up to 60 days of storage. Moisture content of T. fasciata was significantly increased from 15.06% to 17.80% during the storage period. No significant difference was observed in protein, lipid and ash content on dry matter basis during storage. However, amount of lipids of the dried fish was slightly decreased with the increasing of storage time. The pH value of dried T. fasciata was decreased significantly from 6.51 to 5.94 during the storage period. The peroxide value was increased from 13.84 to 27.87 meq/Kg of lipid. Similarly, acid value and conjugated diene of the lipids were increased significantly, and this result suggested that lipid oxidation occurred over this period of time. Microbial load was also increased from 1.13 to 8.37 log CFU/g with the increasing of storage time. Results of this study showed that the product was oxidized marginally during the storage period and suitable for human consumption up to 60 days.

Energies ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 1513
Riky Lim ◽  
Deog-Keun Kim ◽  
Jin-Suk Lee

Reutealis trisperma, due to its high kernel-oil yield (±50%) and long productivity (±70 years), is considered to be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. In addition, this plant, which can thrive on marginal lands, is classified as a non-edible oil since it contains a toxin known as eleostearic acid. The present study aimed to optimize the esterification step in biodiesel production from R.trisperma oil catalyzed using sulfonic ion exchange resin Lewatit K2640. The optimization step was performed using a response surface methodology through the incorporation of a central composite design. A kinetic study was performed as well, based on the assumption of a pseudo-homogeneous second-order model. Catalyst loading was found to have the most significant impact on acid value, followed by temperature and methanol-to-oil molar ratio. The optimal conditions for the esterification step were 92 °C temperature, 5.34% catalyst loading, and 5.82:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio. The acid value and FFA conversion of R.trisperma oil under these conditions were 2.49 mg KOH/g and 91.75%, respectively. The kinetics study revealed that the constructed model could fit the experimental data well with relatively high reliability. The activation energy required for the esterification of R.trisperma oil was 33.2 kJ/mol.

2018 ◽  
Phiwe Charles Jiyane

Consumption of liquid energy products, primarily fossil-based fuels, by the transportation industry, is high and has caused an escalation of the energy crisis facing global communities. This protracted use of fossil fuels has inadvertently resulted in an increased concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, leading to environmental degradation. An environmentally friendly alternative fuel source, in the form of biofuels, has been found. These biofuels are biodegradable, boasting reduced levels of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), obnoxious sulphur (SOx) and nitrogen compounds (NOx) in their combustion products. In African countries, particularly the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the urgency for the establishment of a viable biodiesel industry is driven by the vulnerability of crude oil prices, high unemployment, climate change concerns and the need for the continent’s growing economies to use their resources in a sustainable manner. In order to address these concerns, this investigation focused on the extraction of non-edible oil from the seeds of the indigenous Croton gratissimus plant, the catalytic synthesis of biodiesel and the optimisation of the developed biodiesel production process. In this optimisation study, biodiesel was produced from oil extracted from Croton gratissimus seeds using synthesised monoclinic sulphated zirconia (SO42–/ZrO2) and KOH as catalysts. Low oil extraction yields (29.35%) obtained for this crop were attributed to its low unsaturated fatty acid content of 25.4%. From the model developed for the esterification of Croton 2– gratissimus oil, the concentration of SO4 /ZrO2 catalyst had the most significant effect in the reduction of the Acid Value of oil. This was substantiated by flat response surfaces observed on the RSM surface plots when all other design factors were varied whilst keeping catalyst concentration constant. The operating conditions for the esterification process that could give an optimum Acid Value of 2.693 mg KOH/g of oil were therefore found to be; 10.96 mass % SO42–/ZrO2 catalyst concentration, 27.60 methanol-to-oil ratio and 64 0C reaction temperature. In the optimisation of the transesterification process, the model showed that catalyst concentration, methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature, and their interactions were all significant model terms. But catalyst concentration and methanol-to-oil ratio, were the terms found to have the most influence on the percentage fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and percentage FAME purity. It was established from the combined model that optimum responses of 84.51% FAME yield and 90.66% FAME purity could be achieved when operating the transesterification process at 1.439 mass % KOH catalyst concentration, 7.472 methanol-to-oil ratio and at a temperature of 63.50 0C. The two-step biodiesel process used in this work, produced biodiesel with a high FAME purity and a relatively high FAME yield. Improvement of the oil extraction process may be possible with polar co-solvent such as ethyl acetate, which may increase the FAME yield in the Croton gratissimus biodiesel production process.

2014 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
pp. 705-715
N. Stanisic ◽  
N. Parunovic ◽  
M. Petrovic ◽  
C. Radovic ◽  
S. Lilic ◽  

The aim of this trial was to investigate changes in chemical and physico-chemical parameters during the production of traditional Sremska sausage (dry fermented sausage) from pork of three pig breeds: Mangalitsa (MA), Moravka (MO) and Swedish Landrace (SL). Analyses of all variants of sausages were carried out after stuffing (day 0) and on production days 3, 7, 14 and 21. The reduction in moisture during production caused the increase in protein, fat and ash contents (p<0.001) in all three variants of sausages, were found to be within the range for this type of sausages. Higher fat content in MA and MO sausages compared to SL variant was most likely a result of the different chemical composition of the meat from pigs of autochthonous breeds. All three sausage variants had a similar final pH value, but the mildest drop of pH was determined in MA sausages. Pig breed significantly affected (p<0.05) all three indicators of oxidative changes (thiobarbituric acid value, peroxide value and free fatty acid content). It was found that they were higher in SL compared with MA and MO sausages and to significantly increase during the production process.

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 191592
Shehu-Ibrahim Akinfalabi ◽  
Umer Rashid ◽  
Imededdine Arbi Nehdi ◽  
Thomas Shean Yaw Choong ◽  
Hassen Mohamed Sbihi ◽  

The optimum conditions to produce palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)-derived-methyl esters via esterification have been demonstrated with the aid of the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design in the presence of heterogeneous acid catalyst. The effect of four reaction variables, reaction time (30–110 min), reaction temperature (30–70°C), catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.%) and methanol : PFAD molar ratio (3 : 1–11 : 1), were investigated. The reaction time had the most influence on the yield response, while the interaction between the reaction time and the catalyst concentration, with an F -value of 95.61, contributed the most to the esterification reaction. The model had an R 2 -value of 0.9855, suggesting a fit model, which gave a maximum yield of 95%. The fuel properties of produced PFAD methyl ester were appraised based on the acid value, iodine value, cloud and pour points, flash point, kinematic viscosity, density, ash and water contents and were compared with biodiesel EN 14214 and ASTM D-6751 standard limits. The PFAD methyl ester was further blended with petro-diesel from B0, B3, B5, B10, B20 and B100, on a volumetric basis. The blends were characterized by TGA, DTG and FTIR. With an acid value of 0.42 (mg KOH g −1 ), iodine value of 63 (g.I 2 /100 g), kinematic viscosity of 4.31 (mm 2 s −1 ), the PFAD methyl ester has shown good fuel potential, as all of its fuel properties were within the permissible international standards for biodiesel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 206-221 ◽  
Gideon Lawer-Yolar ◽  
Benjamin Dawson-Andoh ◽  
Emmanuel Atta-Obeng

This study compared the yield of biodiesel produced from tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) via (i) homogeneous catalyst (sulfuric acid) and (ii) a heterogeneous catalyst (Amberlyst® BD20, together with Ambersep BD 19 (Midcontinental Chemical Co., Olathe, KS, USA)® using a batch reactor. The effect of operation conditions including temperature, catalyst concentration, methanol: oil ratio and reaction time on esterification yield were investigated. Gas chromatographic data showed that the major fatty acids present in the TOFA are oleic acid (C18:1n9) and linoleic acid (C18:2n6). Homogenous catalysis yielded 96.76% biodiesel compared to 90.24% for heterogeneous catalysis. Optimized conditions for homogenous catalysis were at a catalyst concentration of 0.5 w/w%, 15:1 methanol: oil mass ratio at 55 °C for 60 min. FTIR results also showed that the homogeneous catalyst yielded a more complete reaction toward biodiesel production in a shorter time (60 min) compared to the heterogeneous catalyst (4.7 h). For heterogeneous catalysis, the highest yield and the lowest acid value were achieved after a second recycling because the reactants were not fully in contact with the catalyst during the first recycling. The catalyst did not show a reduction in catalytic activity even after the fourth recycling. However, the acid value was higher than that for ASTM standards for biodiesel.

Rasheed U. Owolabi ◽  
Mohammed A. Usman ◽  
Oribayo Oluwasola ◽  
Ikuejawa T. Samuel

Modeling and optimization of trans-esterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) to trimethylolpropone ester (TMP ester- a bio-lubricant) via palm kernel oil methyl ester (PKOME-a biodiesel) synthesis were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) component of the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for the optimization of the process parameters, where temperature and weight ratio of PKOME to TMP were held constant at 130 °C and 3.9 : 1 respectively, to generate 20 experimental runs. Bio-lubricant yield was calculated for each experimental run. A quadratic-like model was generated that related the yield to the process parameters (Reaction time, Stirring Speed, and Catalyst concentration). The predicted and actual R2 value were 0.9856 and 0.9959 respectively, which indicate an excellent agreement between experimental and predicted bio-lubricant yield. The predicted maximum bio-lubricant yield was 98.11 % at reaction time of 99.9084 mins, stirring speed of 863.794 rpm, and catalyst concentration 0.84522 wt. %. The experimental value obtained under same conditions was 96.996 %. Physico-chemical analysis of the bio-lubricant synthesized at optimum conditions were found to be within the range of the ASTM standard for bio-lubricants

2019 ◽  
Vol 31 (12) ◽  
pp. 3004-3008
A.A. El-Refai ◽  
M.M. Rabie ◽  
Rania E. El-Gammal ◽  
W.A. Al-Saban

This work aims to study the effect of using nanoemulsion particles on the stability of sesame seed oil emulsion. During the roasting process of sesame seeds (Sohage-1), some physico-chemical properties of sesame seeds and its oil were determined. The moisture, protein and fiber contents were decreased whereas oil, ash and arbohydrates contents were increased. Sesame oil was extracted from roasted sesame seeds using mechanical pressing; some physico-chemical properties for extracted oil were determined. Results indicated that colour, acid value, free fatty acids (%), peroxide and hydrolysis values were increased, while saponification value was decreased in sesame oil. Also traditional and nanoemulsions form of sesame oil were prepared. Characterization of these emulsions particles was conducted using zeta potential and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results also indicated that small droplet size of nanoemulsion particles being 26.28 nm in emulsion which prepared by using nano-technique as compared with those of 638.8 nm in traditional emulsion type and low polydispersity index (PDI) was nanoemulsion particles 0.266. This lead to more uniformity in droplet size thus could improve the stability of emulsion system. The TEM results of nanoemulsion particles of sesame oil showed that spherical droplets and nearly similarity in shape in nanoemulsion in compared with semi-spherical and varied particles size in traditional one. Creaming index, centrifugation test, conductivity and freeze-thaw cycles were used to evaluate all type of prepared emulsion stability. The nanoemulsion particles of sesame oil were found to be more stable than those of traditional one. These results indicated that the nanoemulsion process could increase the stability of prepared emulsion. Thus, using of nanoemulsion technique could be used as commercial way to enhance the stability of prepared emulsion.

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