Detection of OqxAB Efflux Pumps, a Multidrug-Resistant Agent in Bacterial Infection in Patients Referring to Teaching Hospitals in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Mojtaba Moosavian ◽  
Mahtab Khoshkholgh Sima ◽  
Nazanin Ahmad Khosravi ◽  
Effat Abbasi Montazeri

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae are causative agents of global health problems. Bacterial infections due to multidrug resistance (MDR) may be mediated by the overexpression of efflux pumps. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of oqxA and oqxB genes as two encoding agents of efflux pumps and the determination of antibiotic resistance rate in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from different clinical specimens of infectious patients, such as wounds, urine, blood, discharge, and abscesses except stool, were examined. Identification of the isolates was performed using standard biochemical tests such as TSI, citrate, urea, lysine, SIM, MR-VP, and gas production. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines, and finally, the oqxA and oqxB genes were detected by the PCR method. Among 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter gergoviae were the most common isolates with 71% and 20%, respectively. Also, the lowest isolates belonged to Enterobacter cloacae (3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1%). Out of 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 37 isolates (37%) were positive for at least one of oqxA or oqxB genes, while both of these genes were detected among 12% of them. oqxAB genes were detected in 8 cases of 20 (40%) Enterobacter gergoviae and 4 cases of 71 (5.7%) E. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all isolates (100%) were susceptible to imipenem, while the maximum resistance to piperacillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime were 69%, 55%, and 55%, respectively. Also, the results of this study showed that antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates caused by oqxAB genes is increasing among patients in Iran. Therefore, identification of resistant isolates and antibiotic monitoring programs are essential to prevent the spread of MDR isolates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 ◽  
pp. 06009
Anindya Dwi Ash-Santri ◽  
Vinsa Cantya Prakasita ◽  
Yosua Kristian Adi ◽  
Teguh Budipitojo ◽  
Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni

Atelerix albiventris and Hystrix javanica are currently traded as pets or consumed in Indonesia, but there has been no research about bacteria from the vulva swab before. This research aims to isolate and identify bacteria from the vulva swabs of Atelerix albiventris and Hystrix javanica, and identify their antibiotic susceptibility. Samples were isolated by blood agar plates and selective media and identified by biochemical tests. Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test. The result showed that from Atelerix albiventris was isolated and identified Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, while from Hystrix javanica was isolated and identified Escherichia coli. The identified Escherichia coli was sensitive to Amikacin, Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Enrofloxacin, Fosfomycin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Trimethoprim, and Kanamycin; intermediate to Streptomycin; and resistant to Erythromycin and Penicillin G. The identified Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to Amikacin, Amoxycillin, Kanamycin, Enrofloxacin, and Fosfomycin; and resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim. This research concludes that Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from vulva swab of Atelerix albiventris and Hystrix javanica, Escherichia coli was sensitive to eight antibiotics, while Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to five antibiotics.

Erfaneh Jafari ◽  
Mana Oloomi ◽  
Saeid Bouzari

Abstract Background Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are among common foodborne bacterial pathogens and healthy livestock are the main source of this bacterium. Severe diseases attribute to two types of cytotoxin Stx1 and Stx2, which are also called Shiga toxin (Stx). Infection of humans with STEC may result in Acute diarrhea with or without bleeding, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). As antibiotic resistance is increasingly being reported among STEC isolates obtained from livestock and patients worldwide, in this study the pattern of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates was determined. Methods Stool samples were collected from patients with diarrhea. All samples were cultured and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test and assessment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-related genes were conducted. Moreover, phylogenetic groups were analyzed using quadruplex PCR, and DNA analysis assessed multi-locus sequence types (MLST). Results Out of 340 E. coli samples, 174 were identified as STEC by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that, 99.4%, 96% and 93.1% of isolates were susceptible to imipenem/ertapenem, piperacillin–tazobactam and amikacin, respectively. The highest resistance was towards ampicillin (68.4%), followed by trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (59.8%), and tetracycline (57.5%). A total of 106 (60.9%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and 40.8% of isolates were determined to be extended spectrum β-lactamase producers. In 94.4% of isolates, genes responsible for ESBL production could be detected, and blaTEM was the most prevalent, followed by blaCTX-M9. Furthermore, phylogenetic grouping revealed that majority of STEC strains belonged to Group C, followed by Groups E, B2 and A. MLST unveiled diverse ST types. Conclusion A periodical surveillance studies and thorough understanding of antibiotic resistant profiles in STEC isolates could help select effective antibiotic treatment for patients and develop strategies to effectively manage food contamination and human infections.

2014 ◽  
Vol 6 (267) ◽  
pp. 267ra174-267ra174 ◽  
J. Choi ◽  
J. Yoo ◽  
M. Lee ◽  
E.-G. Kim ◽  
J. S. Lee ◽  

2011 ◽  
Vol 56 (No. 7) ◽  
pp. 352-357 ◽  
K. Trivedi ◽  
S. Cupakova ◽  
R. Karpiskova

A collection of 250 enterococci isolated from various food-stuffs were used to investigate seven virulence determinants and the microbial susceptibility of eight antibiotics. Species-specific PCR revealed the presence of E. faecalis (127 isolates), E. faecium (77 isolates), E. casseliflavus (21 isolates), E. mundtii (19 isolates) and E. durans (six isolates). Multiplex PCR for virulence factors showed that from a total 250 isolates, 221 (88.4%) carried one or more virulence-encoding genes. β-Haemolytic activity was also evident in enterococcal species other than E. faecalis and E. faecium. Species other than E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food are also seen to harbour the potential for virulence. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method showed that of the total 250 isolates, 114 (46%) were resistant to cephalothin and 94 (38%) to ofloxacin. Lower antibiotic resistance was seen with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and teicoplanin. None of the isolates was found to be resistant to vancomycin. The results of this study show that food can play an important role in the spread of enterococci with virulence potential through the food chain to the human population.

2019 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 113-120
Farzad Khademi ◽  
Amirhossein Sahebkar

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Yersinia species, especially Y. enterocolitica from non-clinical and clinical isolates in Iran. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Information Database (SID) using "antibiotic resistance", "Yersinia", and "Iran" as major keywords until June 10, 2019. According to the predefined article selection criteria, published studies addressing the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Yersinia species in Iran were included in the meta-analysis. Data were extracted and exported to the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software to evaluate antibiotic resistance rates, heterogeneity of studies and publication bias. Results: Twelve studies reported antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion method. The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Yersinia species in food and clinical specimens in Iran was as follows: 22.4% to amoxicillin, 41.9% to ampicillin, 6% to gentamicin, 17% to trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, 19% to tetracycline, 10.3% to ciprofloxacin, 10.5% to streptomycin, 3.8% to chloramphenicol, 79.3% to cephalothin, 18.4% to nalidixic acid, 6.6% to cefotaxime, and 12.2% to trimethoprim. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of resistant Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from food and clinical specimens in Iran to β-lactams, while the resistance rates to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol were low. Our findings recommended the necessity of a continuous surveillance of the resistance patterns and prudent use of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid to prevent the development of antibioticresistant Y. enterocolitica strains in Iran.

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