Epidemiology of Respiratory Pathogens in Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection and Impact of the Multiplex PCR Film Array Respiratory Panel: A 2-Year Study

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Asmae Lamrani Hanchi ◽  
Morad Guennouni ◽  
Meriem Rachidi ◽  
Toufik Benhoumich ◽  
Hind Bennani ◽  

Sever acute respiratory infections (SARIs) are a public health issue that are common in children and are associated with an important morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. Although SARI are mainly caused by viruses, they are still a cause of antibiotic overuse. The use of molecular methods especially real-time multiplex PCR allowed to detect a wide range of respiratory viruses and their subtype as well as some atypical bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of respiratory pathogens detected in children admitted with SARI and to highlight the role of real-time multiplex PCR in the rapid diagnosis of viral and bacterial SARI. This work is a descriptive observational study from January 2018 to December 2019 including nasopharyngeal secretions collected from 534 children hospitalised in paediatric department. The detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria was performed by the FilmArray® Respiratory Panel. A total of 387 (72.5%) children were tested positive for at least one respiratory pathogen, and 23.3% of them were coinfected with more than one pathogen. Viral aetiology was found in 91.2% (n = 340). The most common viruses detected were HRV (n = 201) and RSV (n = 124), followed by PIV (n = 35) influenza A (n = 29) and human metapneumovirus (n = 27). Bacteria was found in 8.8% (n = 47), and Bordetella pertussis was the most detected. Respiratory syncytial virus and Bordetella pertussis were significantly higher in infants less than 6 months old. The detection of RSV and influenza A presented a pic in winter, and HMPV was statistically significant in spring ( p < 0.01 ). This study described the epidemiology of respiratory pathogens involved in severe respiratory infections in children that were affected by several factors such as season and age group. It also highlighted the importance of multiplex PCR in confirming viral origin, thus avoiding irrational prescription of antibiotics in paediatric settings.

2017 ◽  
Vol 2017 ◽  
pp. 1-7 ◽  
Shirley Masse ◽  
Lisandru Capai ◽  
Alessandra Falchi

Background. The current study aims to describe the demographical and clinical characteristics of elderly nursing home (NH) residents with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during four winter seasons (2013/2014–2016/2017), as well as the microbiological etiology of these infections. Methods. Seventeen NHs with at least one ARI resident in Corsica, France, were included. An ARI resident was defined as a resident developing a sudden onset of any constitutional symptoms in addition to any respiratory signs. Nasopharyngeal swabs from ARI residents were screened for the presence of 21 respiratory agents, including seasonal influenza viruses. Results. Of the 107 ARI residents enrolled from NHs, 61 (57%) were positive for at least one of the 21 respiratory pathogens. Forty-one (38.3%) of the 107 ARI residents had influenza: 38 (92%) were positive for influenza A (100% A(H3N2)) and three (8%) for influenza B/Victoria. Axillary fever (≥38°C) was significantly more common among patients infected with influenza A(H3N2). Conclusion. The circulation of seasonal respiratory viruses other than influenza A(H3N2) seems to be sporadic among elderly NH residents. Investigating the circulation of respiratory viruses in nonwinter seasons seems to be important in order to understand better the dynamic of their year-round circulation in NHs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Neli Korsun ◽  
Svetla Angelova ◽  
Ivelina Trifonova ◽  
Silvia Voleva ◽  
Iliana Grigorova ◽  

Нuman bocaviruses (hBoVs) are often associated with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Information on the distribution and molecular epidemiology of hBoVs in Bulgaria is currently limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of hBoVs detected in patients with ARIs in Bulgaria. From October 2016 to September 2019, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected from 1842 patients of all ages and tested for 12 common respiratory viruses using a real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of the hBoV VP1/VP2 gene/protein were performed. HBoV was identified in 98 (5.3%) patients and was the 6th most prevalent virus after respiratory-syncytial virus (20.4%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (11.1%), A(H3N2) (10.5%), rhinoviruses (9.9%), and adenoviruses (6.8%). Coinfections with other respiratory viruses were detected in 51% of the hBoV-positive patients. Significant differences in the prevalence of hBoVs were found during the different study periods and in patients of different age groups. The detection rate of hBoV was the highest in patients aged 0–4 years (6.9%). In this age group, hBoV was the only identified virus in 9.7%, 5.8%, and 1.1% of the children diagnosed with laryngotracheitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, respectively. Among patients aged ≥5 years, hBoV was detected as a single agent in 2.2% of cases of pneumonia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Bulgarian hBoV strains belonged to the hBoV1 genotype. A few amino acid substitutions were identified compared to the St1 prototype strain. This first study amongst an all-age population in Bulgaria showed a significant rate of hBoV detection in some serious respiratory illnesses in early childhood, year-to-year changes in the hBoV prevalence, and low genetic variability in the circulating strains.

2019 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Niloofar Neisi ◽  
Samaneh Abbasi ◽  
Manoochehr Makvandi ◽  
Shokrollah Salmanzadeh ◽  
Somayeh Biparva ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 38-45
S. A. Khmilevskaya ◽  
N. I. Zryachkin ◽  
V. E. Mikhailova

The aim: to study the etiological structure of acute respiratory infections in children aged 3 to 12 hospitalized in the early stages of the disease in the department of respiratory infections of the children’s hospital, and to reveal the features of their clinical course and the timing of DNA / RNA elimination of respiratory viruses from nasal secretions, depending on the method of therapy. Materials and methods: 100 children with acute respiratory infections aged 3 to 12 years were monitored. The nasal secrets on the DNA / RNA of respiratory viruses were studied by PCR. Depending on the method of therapy, patients were divided into 2 groups: patients of group 1 (comparison) received basic treatment (without the use of antiviral drugs), in patients of the 2nd group (main), along with basal therapy, the drug was used umifenovir in a 5-day course at the ageappropriate dosage. Results: In the etiologic structure of ARVI in children from 3 to 12 years, the leading place was taken by rhinovirus, influenza and metapneumovirus infections (isolated – 18%, 19% and 20% respectively, in the form of a mixed infection – 11%). The main syndromic diagnosis at the height of the disease was rhinopharyngitis. Complications were observed in 42% of cases, as often as possible with flu – 53% of cases. Features of metapneumovirus infection in children of this age group were: predominance of non-severe forms of the disease in the form of acute fever with symptoms of rhinopharyngitis, as well as a small incidence of lower respiratory tract infections. The use of the drug umiphenovir in children with acute respiratory viral infections of various etiologies contributed to significantly faster elimination of viral DNA / RNA from the nasal secretion, which was accompanied by a ecrease in the duration of the main clinical and hematological symptoms of the disease, a decrease in the incidence of complications, and reduced the duration of stay in hospital. Conclusion: application of modern molecular genetic methods of diagnostics made it possible to identify the leading role of influenza, metapneumovirus and rhinovirus infections in the etiology of acute respiratory viral infection in patients aged 3 to 12 years, and to determine a number of clinical features characteristic of this age group. The results of the study testify to the effectiveness of umiphenovir in the treatment of children with acute respiratory viral infections of various etiologies and allow us to recommend this drug as an effective and safe etiotropic agent.

Iman S. Naga ◽  
Gamal Eldin Elsawaf ◽  
Mahmoud Elzalabany ◽  
Mohamed Youssef Eltalkhawy ◽  
Ola Kader

Abstract Respiratory infections have a significant impact on health worldwide. Viruses are major causes of acute respiratory infections among children. Limited information regarding its prevalence in Egypt is available. This study investigated prevalence of 10 respiratory viruses; Adenovirus, influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Parainfluenza virus (PIV)type 1-4, enterovirus, and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among children in Alexandria, Egypt presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. The study was conducted on children <14 years of age selected from ElShatby Pediatric Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt. One hundred children presenting during winter season with influenza-like illness were eligible for the study. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected and subjected to viral RNA and DNA extraction followed by polymerase chain reaction. Viral infections were detected in 44% of cases. Adenovirus was the most common, it was found in 19% of the patients. Prevalence of PIV (3 and 4) and enterovirus was 7% each. Prevalence of RSV and HCoV-OC43 was 5% and 3% respectively. Two percentage were Influenza A positive and 1% positive for influenza B. Mixed viral infection was observed in 7%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of HCoV-OC43 from respiratory infections in Alexandria, Egypt.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 123-126
Evgeniya Viktorovna Lelenkova ◽  
Alexandr Yurievich Markaryan

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory viral infections are ubiquitous. Part of the cases are severe and require hospital treatment. AIM: Studying the etiology of severe acute respiratory infections in patients of Ekaterinburg hospitals in different epidemic seasons (from 2017 to 2020). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1,132 cases of severe acute respiratory infection were assessed. The structure of laboratory-confirmed cases was determined. RESULTS: In the assessed seasons, the proportion of respiratory viruses in the etiological structure of severe acute respiratory infections was 56.0% on average. B/Yamagata lineage of influenza viruses was predominant in the season of 2017/2018 (23.9% from the total number of respiratory viruses), influenza А (H1N1)pdm09 viruses were predominant in the season of 2018/2019 (27.7%), and influenza A and B viruses were identified in 2019/2020 (39.4% and 31.7%, respectively). СONCLUSIONS: The obtained results confirm a key role of influenza viruses in the etiology of severe acute respiratory infections among the hospital patients in different epidemic seasons.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 413-425
Anna Sominina ◽  
Daria Danilenko ◽  
Andrey Komissarov ◽  
Maria Pisareva ◽  
Tamila Musaeva ◽  

AbstractThe expansion and standardization of clinical trials, as well as the use of sensitive and specific molecular diagnostics methods, provide new information on the age-specific roles of influenza and other respiratory viruses in development of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI). Here, we present the results of the multicenter hospital-based study aimed to detect age-specific impact of influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV). The 2018–2019 influenza season in Russia was characterized by co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) virus subtypes which were detected among hospitalized patients with SARI in 19.3% and 16.4%, respectively. RSV dominated among ORV (15.1% of total cases and 26.8% in infants aged ≤ 2 years). The most significant SARI agents in intensive care units were RSV and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, (37.3% and 25.4%, respectively, of PCR-positive cases). Hyperthermia was the most frequently registered symptom for influenza cases. In contrast, hypoxia, decreased blood O2 concentration, and dyspnea were registered more often in RSV, rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus infection in young children. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalization of patients with PCR-confirmed influenza was evaluated using test-negative case–control design. IVE for children and adults was estimated to be 57.0% and 62.0%, respectively. Subtype specific IVE was higher against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, compared to influenza A(H3N2) (60.3% and 45.8%, respectively). This correlates with delayed antigenic drift of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and genetic heterogeneity of the influenza A(H3N2) population. These studies demonstrate the need to improve seasonal influenza prevention and control in all countries as states by the WHO Global Influenza Strategy for 2019–2030 initiative.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S91-S92
Michele Woolbert ◽  
Ninet Sinaii ◽  
Christine Spalding ◽  
David K Henderson ◽  
Tara N Palmore

Abstract Background During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions had a broad impact on viral transmission apart from SARS-CoV-2. The NIH Clinical Center has used the BioFire FilmArray multiplex PCR respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) for evaluation of upper respiratory symptoms since 2014. Beginning in 3/20, respiratory samples from symptomatic patients were tested by SARS-CoV-2 PCR and the RPP. We performed a retrospective study comparing frequency and rates of community respiratory viruses detected by RPP from 1/14 through 3/21. Methods Results of RPPs from nasopharyngeal swabs/washes, bronchoalveolar lavages, and bronchial washes were included. Results from viral challenge studies were excluded. Charts were reviewed to determine whether repeat positives for the same virus within 12 months represented new infections; repeats from the same infection were excluded. A quantitative data analysis was completed using cross tabulations; comparisons were done using mixed models, applying Dunnett’s correction for multiplicity. Results A total of 3,329 patients underwent 8,122 RPPs from 1/14 through 3/21. Frequency of all respiratory pathogens declined from an annual range of 0.88-1.97% from 1/14-3/20 to 0.29% in 4/20-3/21 (p &lt; 0.001). Individual viral pathogens declined sharply in frequency during the pandemic, with zero cases of influenza A/B, parainfluenza, or metapneumovirus detected from 4/20-3/21. One case each of adenovirus, RSV, CoV OC43, and CoV HKU1 were detected in 4/20-3/21. Rhino/enterovirus detection continued, but with a substantially lower frequency of 4.27% in 4/20-3/21, compared with an annual range of 8.65-18.28% from 1/14-3/20 (p &lt; 0.001). Frequency of detection of all respiratory pathogens tested using the Biofire FilmArray multiplex PCR respiratory pathogen panel from January 2014 through March 2021. The frequency of pathogen detection from April 2020 through March 2021 declined substantially in comparison with previous years. Frequency of detection of influenza A, influenza B, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza (1, 2, 3, 4), and respiratory syncytial virus from January 2014 through March 2021. The frequency of detection of these pathogens declined sharply starting in April 2020. Conclusion During the pandemic, the burden of viral respiratory infections detected among patients at the NIH Clinical Center improved considerably. This reprieve was likely thanks to the layered COVID-19 prevention and mitigation measures implemented in the community and the hospital: masking, distancing, symptom screening, isolation and testing symptomatic persons. As COVID-19 vaccination allows relaxation of masking, community transmission of respiratory viruses will likely resume; continued mask-wearing in the hospital may provide an enduring benefit by preventing nosocomial transmission. Disclosures Tara N. Palmore, MD, Nothing to disclose

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