Bacterial Etiology of Bloodstream Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Malé, Maldives

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Aishath Maharath ◽  
Mariyam Shabeena Ahmed

Background. Bloodstream infections pose a significant health problem worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. It is important to have country-specific data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections, in light of emerging resistance patterns of common bacterial isolates. Due to the scarcity of reports in this area, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial pathogens causing bloodstream infections among the study population. Methods. A retrospective analysis of blood culture samples received at the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Malé, Maldives, was performed for reports between January 2016 and December 2017. Results. Out of the 471 culture-positive samples, 278 (59%) were males and 193 (41%) were females. Amongst the culture-positive samples, 338 (71.8%) Gram-positive organisms were isolated and 133 (28.2%) Gram-negative organisms were isolated. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated blood-borne bacterial pathogen in this study, accounting for 53.6% and 50.9% of the isolates in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Other frequently isolated pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus (15.9% and 10.3%), Klebsiella spp. (10.5% and 16.4%), and Escherichia coli (7.1% and 10.8%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) revealed high percentage of resistance among the tested antimicrobials, ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. Over the two years, a significant difference between the percentage resistance among paediatric and adult patients was observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) isolate resistance to ampicillin p ≤ 0.001 , cephalexin p ≤ 0.001 , cefotaxime p ≤ 0.001 , gentamicin p = 0.008 , and cotrimoxazole (SXT) p ≤ 0.001 . When comparing the significant antimicrobial resistance trends, it can be seen that Enterobacteriaceae isolates also demonstrated high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin as well as second- and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusions. This study highlights the major bacterial pathogens involved in bloodstream infections in the healthcare setting of Malé, Maldives, and antibiotic resistance patterns. The results indicate that further characterization of bacteremia and its resistance patterns is needed to combat bloodstream infections.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Birhan Alemnew ◽  
Habtamu Biazin ◽  
Asmamaw Demis ◽  
Melese Abate Reta

Introduction. The burden of bloodstream infections (BSIs) has been warranted in Ethiopia. Globally, the emergency and raised resistance rate of bacterial antimicrobial resistance is becoming a prominent problem, and it is difficult to treat patients having sepsis. In this review, we aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of bacterial isolates among presumptive patients with bloodstream infections in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic search was performed from PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, HINARI, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar electronic databases using PRISMA guidelines. The data analysis was carried out using STATATM version 14 after the records were cleaned and sorted out. Results. A total of 26 studies with 8,958 blood specimens and 2,382 culture-positive bacterial isolates were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis derived a pooled culture-positive bacterial prevalence which was 25.78% (95% CI: 21.55–30.01%). The estimated pooled prevalence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was 15.50% (95% CI: 12.84–18.15%) and 10.48 % (95% CI: 8.32–12.63%), respectively. The two common Gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients suspected of BSIs were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus with a pooled prevalence of 5.75% (95% CI: 4.58–6.92%) and S. aureus 7.04 % (95% CI: 5.37–8.72%). Similarly, the common Gram-negative bacterial isolates and their estimated pooled prevalence were E. coli 1.69% (95% CI: 1.21–2.16%), Klebsiella species 7.04 % (95% CI: 5.37–8.72%), Pseudomonas species 0.39% (95% CI: 0.08–0.70%), Salmonella species 1.09% (95% CI: 0.79–1.38%), and Streptococcus pyogenes 0.88% (95% CI: 0.54–1.22%). Conclusion. The prevalence of bacterial isolates among presumptive patients suspected to BSIs in Ethiopia remains high. Furthermore, we found a remarkable variation in the pathogen distribution across the study setting.

Asifa Nazir ◽  
Ifshana Sana ◽  
Bushra Yousuf Peerzada ◽  
Tabindah Farooq

Background: Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections is often empirical and based on the knowledge of local antimicrobial activity profiles of the most common bacteria causing such infections. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern of bacterial isolates from the blood cultures in a teaching hospital and determine their antibiotic resistance and provide guidelines for choosing an effective antibiotic therapy in cases of septicaemia.Methods: The etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of one year at a tertiary care hospital was studied. Blood culture positive isolates were identified by BacT/Alert3D, an automated blood culture system, while as identification of the isolates from these samples and their antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact.Results: There were 2231 blood culture samples, of which 565 (25.3%) were identified to be culture positive. Out of 565 positive cultures, 447 (79.1%) showed bacterial growth; Gram positive were 306 (54.2%) and Gram negative were 141 (24.9%). Candida species were isolated from 118 (20.9%) of positive samples. The most frequently identified Gram-positive bacteria were Coagulase-negative staphylococci 208 (67.9%) and the most common Gram-negative isolates were Acinetobacter species 89 (63.1%). The most sensitive drugs for gram-positive isolates were vancomycin, and linezolid while as gram-negative isolates showed 100% sensitivity to colistin and tigecycline.Conclusions: This study reveals a significant prevalence of bacterial isolates in blood and it highlights the need for periodic surveillance of etiologic agent and antibiotic susceptibility to prevent further emergence and spread of resistant bacterial pathogens.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Mohabaw Jemal ◽  
Teshiwal Deress ◽  
Teshome Belachew ◽  
Yesuf Adem

Background. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is recognized as a global public health problem. Bloodstream infection with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in HIV/AIDS patients makes the problem more challenging. So, regular and periodic diagnosis and use of the appropriate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determination is the only option for decreasing the prevalence and development of drug-resistant bacteria. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 HIV/AIDS patients. Sociodemographic data of patients were recorded using structured questionnaires. Blood cultures were collected with BACTEC aerobic blood culture bottles. A pair of samples was collected from each patient aseptically and incubated at 37°. If samples are positive for bacterial agents, they were subcultured to solid media such as blood agar plate, chocolate agar plate, and MacConkey agar plates. Identification was performed using colony characteristics and standard biochemical techniques. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was determined by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Data entry and analysis were performed while using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were performed to calculate frequencies. Results. Altogether, 384 patients were included, and 123 blood cultures were positive, so that the yield was thus 32%. About 46 (37.4%) of Gram-negative and 77 (62.6%) of Gram-positive bacterial species were identified. Among Gram-negative bacterial isolates, K. pneumoniae was the leading pathogen, 19 (41.3%), whereas S. aureus, 38 (49.4%), was predominant among Gram-positive isolates. In his study, the majority of Gram-positive isolates showed high level of resistance to penicillin, 72 (95.5%), tetracycline, 55 (71.4%), and cotrimoxazole, 45 (58.4%). About 28 (73.6%) of S. aureus isolates were also methicillin-resistant. Gram-negative bacterial isolates also showed a high resistance to ampicillin (91.3%), tetracycline (91.3%), and gentamicin (47.8%). Overall, about 78% of multidrug resistance was observed. Conclusion. Several pathogens were resistant to greater than five antimicrobial agents, so that proper management of patients with bacteremia is needed, and a careful selection of effective antibiotics should be practiced.

2017 ◽  
Vol 06 (03) ◽  
pp. 132-133
Preetam Kalaskar ◽  
Asha Anand ◽  
Harsha Panchal ◽  
Apurva Patel ◽  
Sonia Parikh ◽  

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) consists of induction therapy with anthracyclines and cytarabine followed by two to four cycles of consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine after achieving remission. There have been very few studies comparing infections during induction and consolidation. We have analyzed blood cultures of patients with AML during episodes of fever occurring during induction and consolidation, for comparing the bloodstream infections in both the phases. Materials and Methods: Blood cultures of patients during febrile episodes were collected from central venous catheters and peripheral blood, both during induction and consolidation therapy of AML. Results: The study population included 52 AML patients. During induction, there were 52 episodes of fever and 25 (48%) blood cultures were positive, 15 of these blood cultures reported Gram-negative organisms, 9 reported Gram-positive organisms and 1 as yeast. During consolidation, 47 episodes of fever were recorded and blood cultures were positive in 12, of which 7 were Gram-negative, 5 were Gram-positive. Conclusion: The incidence of blood culture positive infections during therapy of AML at our center was higher. The predominant organism isolated was Gram-negative both during induction and consolidation. The incidence of blood culture positive infections had decreased by 50% during consolidation.

Wound infection is a major problem in hospitals in developing countries. Wound infection causes morbidity and prolonged hospital stay thus this prospective study was conducted for a period of seven months (January 2019 to July 2019). A total of 217 specimens (wound swabs and pus exudates) from wound infected patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh. A retrospective study of the microbiological evaluation was done by cultural growth as well as Gram staining and biochemical examination to identify the bacterial isolates. Finally, the antimicrobial vulnerability testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion conventional method. A total of 295 samples were tested. Out of which 217 (73.5%) were found culture positive. E. coli was the most predominant gram-negative isolates whereas Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most commonly isolated gram-positive organisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacterial isolates revealed imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and nitrofurantoin to be the most effective antimicrobials against gram-negative isolates, whereas imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, amoxiclav, and gentamicin were the most effective drugs against gram-positive isolates. The result of this examination contributes to the identification of basic causative microbes involved in wound infection and findings of antibiotic susceptibility patterns can be helpful for primary care physicians to optimize the treatment modalities, articulate policies for empiric antimicrobial therapy, and to minimize the rate of infection among wound infected patients.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 954
Vikas Saini ◽  
Charu Jain ◽  
Narendra Pal Singh ◽  
Ahmad Alsulimani ◽  
Chhavi Gupta ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging public health problem in modern times and the current COVID-19 pandemic has further exaggerated this problem. Due to bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 cases, an irrational consumption of antibiotics has occurred during the pandemic. This study aimed to observe the COVID-19 patients hospitalized from 1 March 2019 to 31 December 2020 and to evaluate the AMR pattern of bacterial agents isolated. This was a single-center study comprising 494 bacterial isolates (blood and urine) that were obtained from patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to the ICU and investigated in the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. Out of the total bacterial isolates, 55.46% were gram negative and 44.53% were gram positive pathogens. Of the blood samples processed, the most common isolates were CoNS (Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus) and Staphylococcus aureus. Amongst the urinary isolates, most common pathogens were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 60% MRSA was observed in urine and blood isolates. Up to 40% increase in AMR was observed amongst these isolates obtained during COVID-19 period compared to pre-COVID-19 times. The overuse of antibiotics gave abundant opportunity for the bacterial pathogens to gradually develop mechanisms and to acquire resistance. Since the dynamics of SARS-COV-2 are unpredictable, a compromise on hospital antibiotic policy may ultimately escalate the burden of drug resistant pathogens in hospitals. A shortage of trained staff during COVID-19 pandemic renders it impossible to maintain these records in places where the entire hospital staff is struggling to save lives. This study highlights the extensive rise in the use of antibiotics for respiratory illness due to COVID-19 compared to antibiotic use prior to COVID-19 in ICUs. The regular prescription audit followed by a constant surveillance of hospital infection control practices by the dedicated teams and training of clinicians can improve the quality of medications in the long run and help to fight the menace of AMR.

Carissa A. Odland ◽  
Roy Edler ◽  
Noelle R. Noyes ◽  
Scott A. Dee ◽  
Joel Nerem ◽  

A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of different antimicrobial exposures of nursery-phase pigs on patterns of phenotypic antimicrobial resistance in fecal indicator organisms throughout the growing phase. Based on practical approaches used to treat moderate to severe PRRSV-associated secondary bacterial infections, two antimicrobial protocols of differing intensity of exposure [44.1 and 181.5 animal-treatment days per 1000 animal days at risk (ATD)] were compared with a control group with minimal antimicrobial exposure (2.1 ATD). Litter-matched pigs (n = 108) with no prior antimicrobial exposure were assigned randomly to the treatment groups. Pen fecal samples were collected nine times during the wean-to-finish period and cultured for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using NARMS gram-negative and gram-positive antibiotic panels. Despite up to 65-fold difference in ATD, few and modest differences were observed between groups and over time. Resistant patterns at marketing overall remained similar to those observed at weaning, prior to any antimicrobial exposures. Those differences observed could not readily be reconciled with the patterns of antimicrobial exposure. Resistance of E. coli to streptomycin was higher in the group exposed to 44.1 ATD, but no aminoglycosides were used. In all instances where resistance differed between time points, the higher resistance occurred early in the trial prior to any antimicrobial exposures. These minimal impacts on AMR despite substantially different antimicrobial exposures point to the lack of understanding of the drivers of AMR at the population level and the likely importance of factors other than antimicrobial exposure. IMPORTANCE Despite a recognized need for more longitudinal studies to assess the effects of antimicrobial use on resistance in food animals, they remain sparse in the literature, and most longitudinal studies of pigs have been observational. The current experimental study had the advantages of greater control of potential confounding, precise measurement of antimicrobial exposures which varied markedly between groups and tracking of pigs until market age. Overall, resistance patterns were remarkably stable between the treatment groups over time, and the differences observed could not be readily reconciled with the antimicrobial exposures, indicating the likely importance of other determinants of AMR at the population level.

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