scholarly journals Blockchain-Enabled 5G Edge Networks and Beyond: An Intelligent Cross-Silo Federated Learning Approach

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Sandi Rahmadika ◽  
Muhammad Firdaus ◽  
Seolah Jang ◽  
Kyung-Hyune Rhee

Edge networks (ENs) in 5G have the capability to protect traffic between edge entry points (edge-to-edge), enabling the design of various flexible and customizable applications. The advantage of edge networks is their pioneering integration of other prominent technologies such as blockchain and federated learning (FL) to produce better services on wireless networks. In this paper, we propose an intelligent system integrating blockchain technologies, 5G ENs, and FL to create an efficient and secure framework for transactions. FL enables user equipment (UE) to train the artificial intelligence model without exposing the UE’s valuable data to the public, or to the model providers. Furthermore, the blockchain is an immutable data approach that can be leveraged for FL across 5G ENs and beyond. The recorded transactions cannot be altered maliciously, and they remain unchanged by design. We further propose a dynamic authentication protocol for UE to interact with a diverse base station. We apply blockchain as a reward mechanism in FL to enable computational offloading in wireless networks. Additionally, we implement and investigate blockchain technology for FL in 5G UE.

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lubna Badri Mohammed ◽  
Alagan Anpalagan ◽  
Muhammad Jaseemuddin

<div><div><div><p>Future wireless networks provide research challenges with many fold increase of smart devices and the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. The advent of highly computational and real-time applications cause huge expansion in traffic volume. The emerging need to bring data closer to users and minimizing the traffic off the macrocell base station (MBS) introduces the use of caches at the edge of the networks. Storing most popular files at the edge of mobile edge networks (MENs) in user terminals (UTs) and small base stations (SBSs) caches is a promising approach to the challenges that face data-rich wireless networks. Caching at the mobile UT allows to obtain requested contents directly from its nearby UTs caches through the device-to- device (D2D) communication.</p><p>In this survey article, solutions for mobile edge computing and caching challenges in terms of energy and latency are presented. Caching in MENs and comparisons between different caching techniques in MENs are presented. An illustration of the research in cache development for wireless networks that apply intelligent and learning techniques (ILTs) in a specific domain in their design is presented. We summarize the challenges that face the design of caching system in MENs. Finally, some future research directions are discussed for the development of cache placement and cache access and delivery in MENs.</p></div></div></div>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lubna Badri Mohammed ◽  
Alagan Anpalagan ◽  
Muhammad Jaseemuddin

<div><div><div><p>Future wireless networks provide research challenges with many fold increase of smart devices and the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. The advent of highly computational and real-time applications cause huge expansion in traffic volume. The emerging need to bring data closer to users and minimizing the traffic off the macrocell base station (MBS) introduces the use of caches at the edge of the networks. Storing most popular files at the edge of mobile edge networks (MENs) in user terminals (UTs) and small base stations (SBSs) caches is a promising approach to the challenges that face data-rich wireless networks. Caching at the mobile UT allows to obtain requested contents directly from its nearby UTs caches through the device-to- device (D2D) communication.</p><p>In this survey article, solutions for mobile edge computing and caching challenges in terms of energy and latency are presented. Caching in MENs and comparisons between different caching techniques in MENs are presented. An illustration of the research in cache development for wireless networks that apply intelligent and learning techniques (ILTs) in a specific domain in their design is presented. We summarize the challenges that face the design of caching system in MENs. Finally, some future research directions are discussed for the development of cache placement and cache access and delivery in MENs.</p></div></div></div>


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (16) ◽  
pp. 5307
Author(s):  
Ricardo Borges dos Santos ◽  
Nunzio Marco Torrisi ◽  
Rodrigo Palucci Pantoni

Every consumer’s buying decision at the supermarket influences food brands to make first party claims of sustainability and socially responsible farming methods on their agro-product labels. Fine wines are often subject to counterfeit along the supply chain to the consumer. This paper presents a method for efficient unrestricted publicity to third party certification (TPC) of plant agricultural products, starting at harvest, using smart contracts and blockchain tokens. The method is capable of providing economic incentives to the actors along the supply chain. A proof-of-concept using a modified Ethereum IGR token set of smart contracts using the ERC-1155 standard NFTs was deployed on the Rinkeby test net and evaluated. The main findings include (a) allowing immediate access to TPC by the public for any desired authority by using token smart contracts. (b) Food safety can be enhanced through TPC visible to consumers through mobile application and blockchain technology, thus reducing counterfeiting and green washing. (c) The framework is structured and maintained because participants obtain economical incentives thus leveraging it´s practical usage. In summary, this implementation of TPC broadcasting through tokens can improve transparency and sustainable conscientious consumer behaviour, thus enabling a more trustworthy supply chain transparency.


2019 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 81-86
Author(s):  
Haneffa Muchlis Gazali

The evolution of blockchain technology that promotes decentralised peer to peer electronic cash system named as Bitcoin is becoming trending across the globe. Although the Bitcoin price is extremely volatile, the popularity of bitcoin is seemingly unambiguous. The Bitcoin trending has garnered serious attention from the public, media and academia.  Hitherto, no research has yet systematically investigated the factors influencing the intention to invest in Bitcoin. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that influence the intention to invest in Bitcoin. An online survey was distributed via the email to the target respondents, those who have basic knowledge of Bitcoin investment. After three weeks of the data collection period for the pilot study, 45 samples were gathered to be tested further. Using the SPSS programme, the data were analysed through the reliability test and factor analysis. The results of the study indicate that the items are valid and reliable. The exploratory factor analysis also discloses that the sampling is satisfactory. Being limited preliminary analysis, this study lacks the empirical evidence to confirm the relationships between the studied variables. Therefore, in future an adequate and bigger sample is needed to establish the empirical support on the associations of the studied variables


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