Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: The Magnitude and Risk Factors among Patients Admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Tewodros Tamire ◽  
Temesgen Eticha ◽  
Temesgen Bati Gelgelu

Background. In healthcare facilities, a gradual increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been seen over the past 2 decades. Similarly, it has been responsible for the most frequent and invasive pathogens associated with admitted patient infection. Currently, it is considered an urgent threat to public health and classified as one of the top-priority antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and associated risk factors of MRSA infection among admitted patients. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional examination was led on 413 patients admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from January 2018 to January 2019. A convenient sampling technique was used. Clinical specimens of pus and blood were collected from admitted patients who developed the infection after 48 hours of admission. Gram stain, culture media preparations, and biochemical tests were conducted to identify and isolate the causative agent. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were identified as MRSA strains after having a zone of inhibition less than or equal to 21 mm to the cefoxitin (30 ug) disc. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed. The odds ratio, along with 95% CI, was estimated to identify associated risk factors for MRSA infection. Results. Out of 413 collected specimens, 38.7% had coagulase-positive S. aureus of which 35.6% (95% CI: 28.2%–43.0%) were MRSA. Being within the age group of 19–29 years and 30–39 years with AOR = 5.02 and 95% CI: 1.24–20.35 and AOR = 6.65 and 95% CI: 1.78–24.78, respectively, admitting in the hematology ward and the pediatric ward with AOR = 7.80 and 95% CI: 1.82–33.49 and AOR = 10.54 and 95% CI: 1.78–62.42, respectively, and experiencing poor prognosis with AOR = 10.97 and 95% CI: 4.57–26.36 were significantly associated with MRSA infection. Conclusion and Recommendation. The significant magnitude of MRSA was found among patients admitted to this hospital. Therefore, identified risk factors should be considered when executing hospital-acquired infection prevention programs. We also suggest that healthcare providers should consider the identified risk factors while prescribing the antibiotic.

2018 ◽  
Vol 5 (suppl_1) ◽  
pp. S373-S374
Ian Kracalik ◽  
Kelly Jackson ◽  
Joelle Nadle ◽  
Wendy Bamberg ◽  
Susan Petit ◽  

Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes >70,000 invasive infections annually in the United States, and recurrent infections pose a major clinical challenge. We examined risk factors for recurrent MRSA infections. Methods We identified patients with an initial invasive MRSA infection (isolation from a normally sterile body site) from 2006 to 2013, through active, population-based surveillance in selected counties in nine states through the Emerging Infections Program. Recurrence was defined as invasive MRSA isolation >30 days after initial isolation. We used logistic regression with backwards selection to evaluate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) associated with recurrence within 180 days, prior healthcare exposures, and initial infection type, controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities. Results Among 24,478 patients with invasive MRSA, 3,976 (16%) experienced a recurrence, including 61% (2,438) within 180 days. Risk factors for recurrence were: injection drug use (IDU) (aOR; 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.65), central venous catheters (aOR; 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22–1.51), dialysis (aOR; 2.00, 95% CI: 1.74–2.31), and history of MRSA colonization (aOR; 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22–1.51) (figure). Recurrence was more likely for bloodstream infections (BSI) without another infection (aOR; 2.08, 95% CI: 1.74–2.48), endocarditis (aOR; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.16–1.55), and bone/joint infections (aOR; 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20–1.59), and less likely for pneumonia (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.89), compared with other initial infection types. When assessed separately, the presence of a secondary BSI with another infection increased the odds of recurrence over that infection without a BSI (aOR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.68–2.30). Conclusion Approximately one in six persons with invasive MRSA infection had recurrence. We identified potential opportunities to prevent recurrence through infection control (e.g., management and early removal of central catheters). Other possible areas for preventing recurrence include improving the management of patients with BSI and bone/joint infections (including both during and after antibiotic treatment) and mitigating risk of infection from IDU. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

2007 ◽  
Vol 18 (8) ◽  
pp. 521-526 ◽  
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone ◽  
Alina A Burgi ◽  
Braden R Hale

Community-acquired (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates have rapidly increased in the general population; however, little data on recent incidence rates and risk factors of CA-MRSA infections among HIV patients appear in the literature. A retrospective study was conducted from 1993 through 2005 among patients at a large HIV clinic. Trends in CA-MRSA infection incidence rates, clinical characteristics and risk factors for CA-MRSA were evaluated. Seven percent of our cohort developed a CA-MRSA infection during the study period. The rate of CA-MRSA infections among HIV-infected population significantly increased since 2003, with an incidence of 40.3 cases/1000 person-years in 2005, which was 18-fold higher than the general population served at our facility. In all, 90% of infections were skin/soft tissue infections with a predilection for buttock or scrotal abscess formation; 21% of patients experienced a recurrent infection. Risk factors included a low CD4 count at the time of infection (odds ratio [OR] per 100 CD4 cells 0.84, P = 0.03), high maximum log10 HIV viral load (OR 4.54, P<0.001), recent use of β-lactam antibiotics (OR 6.0 for receipt of two prescriptions, P<0.001) and a history of syphilis (OR 4.55, P = 0.01). No patient receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis developed a CA-MRSA infection. Over the study period, CA-MRSA accounted for an increasing percentage of positive wound cultures and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 37% and 65%, respectively, during 2005. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections have rapidly increased among HIV-infected patients, a group which has a higher rate of these infections than the general population. Risk factors for CA-MRSA among HIV-infected patients include low current CD4 cell count, recent β-lactam antibiotic use and potentially high-risk sexual activity as demonstrated by a history of syphilis infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. 1426-1435
Loay Al Wahaibi ◽  
Rajaa Al Sudairi ◽  
Abdullah Balkhair ◽  
Huda Al-Awaisi ◽  
Mohamed Mabruk

Introduction: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a S. aureus strain characterized by resistance to cloxacillin. Healthcare workers (HCWs), are recognized for their heightened risk for MRSA acquisition and possibly for MRSA nosocomial transmission. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of MRSA colonization among healthcare workers at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Oman. Methodology: A total of 200 nasal swab samples were collected from the healthcare workers at SQUH during the period October 2nd 2018 to January 7th 2019. All nasal swab samples were examined microbiologically for the presence of MRSA using the standard method and the results were confirmed by detection of the mecA product (PBP2a). Data on associated risk factors for MRSA colonization was collected and analyzed. Results: Forty-one of the 200 screened healthcare workers (20.5%) were found to have nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus of which 63.4% were Methicillin Sensitive and 36.6% were Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from fifteen of the 200 screened healthcare workers giving a prevalence rate of nasal colonization with MRSA of 7.5%. We found no statistical association between healthcare worker MRSA nasal colonization and age, gender, HCWs specialty, hand hygiene practices, skin condition, previous MRSA infection, and previous exposure to antibiotics. Conclusions: Identification of the prevalence and the associated risk factors of MRSA colonization in healthcare workers mandates continuous surveillance and the implementation of all possible preventive measures to reduce re-occurrences.

Public Health ◽  
1997 ◽  
Vol 111 (3) ◽  
pp. 187-190 ◽  
M Washio ◽  
T Mizoue ◽  
T Kajioka ◽  
T Yoshimitsu ◽  
M Okayama ◽  

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