Ruxolitinib Re-Treatment in Patients with Myelofibrosis: Real-World Evidence on Patient Characteristics and Outcomes

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Aaron T. Gerds ◽  
Jingbo Yu ◽  
Robyn M. Scherber ◽  
Dilan Paranagama ◽  
Jonathan K. Kish ◽  

Ruxolitinib is an FDA-approved treatment of intermediate- and high-risk myelofibrosis. In the phase 3 COMFORT studies, ruxolitinib reduced spleen volume in patients with myelofibrosis, with a median time to response of 3 months. However, nearly 20% of patients discontinued by month 4 with few treatment options available following discontinuation of ruxolitinib treatment. In this study, 2 independent patient care data sources were queried (Cardinal Health Oncology Provider Extended Network [OPEN] and HealthCore Integrated Research Environment [HIRE®]), and a retrospective review of medical charts was conducted. Patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of myelofibrosis (primary or secondary), use of ruxolitinib for myelofibrosis, and documented physician-directed ruxolitinib interruption were included. Among 26 included patients, pre-interruption median (interquartile range [IQR]) ruxolitinib treatment duration was 123 (57–391, OPEN) and 110 (37–148, HIRE) days. Half the patients interrupted treatment within 3 months, commonly for adverse events (42% and 71%, respectively). After restarting ruxolitinib, median (IQR) re-treatment duration was 196 (54–553) and 166 (108–262) days, respectively. Consistent with previous reports, symptoms and spleen size improved in (OPEN/HIRE) 45%/43% and 40%/33% of evaluable patients, respectively. Further studies investigating the management of dose modifications and interruptions are needed to optimize benefit from ruxolitinib therapy.

Blood ◽  
2015 ◽  
Vol 126 (23) ◽  
pp. 1625-1625
Keita Kirito ◽  
Norio Komatsu ◽  
Kazuya Shimoda ◽  
Hikaru Okada ◽  
Taro Amagasaki ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND: Ruxolitinib is a potent and selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated durable improvements in splenomegaly and MF-related symptoms, and has been associated with improved overall survival in patients (pts) with MF in randomized clinical trials. Results from the phase 2 Asian multinational study (NCT01392443) supported these findings in Asian pts, including 30 Japanese pts. The current study was initiated to collect further data on the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in pts with MF and included intermediate (Int)-1-risk pts and those with a platelet (PLT) count of 50 to < 100 × 109/L, 2 pt populations not included in the phase 3 COMFORT studies or the phase 2 Asian study. METHODS: Pts with primary MF (PMF), post-polycythemia vera (PPV) MF, or post-essential thrombocythemia (PET) MF classified as high-risk, Int-2 risk, or Int-1 risk with a palpable spleen (≥ 5 cm from costal margin) were included. The primary objective was to assess safety of ruxolitinib. Efficacy endpoints included changes in spleen size and patient-reported outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30 symptoms and functional scales and the 7-day modified MFSAF v2.0). All pts were to receive ruxolitinib for 24 wk with the starting dose based on PLT count at baseline (50 to ˂ 100 × 109/L, 5 mg twice daily [bid]; 100 to 200 × 109/L, 15 mg bid; ˃ 200 × 109/L, 20 mg bid) and adjusted for each pt to maximize safety and efficacy (minimum, 5 mg bid; maximum, 25 mg bid). The primary analysis occurred when all pts completed 24 wk or discontinued. RESULTS: Overall, 51 pts (PMF, n = 23; PPV-MF, n = 14; PET-MF, n = 14) were treated. Most pts were Int-2 (33.3%) or high risk (54.9%); 11.8% were classified as Int-1. The median age was 65 years (range, 44-85 years), and 52.9% (n = 27) were male. The median palpable spleen length was 16.5 cm (range, 2-30 cm), and the median spleen volume was 2028.7 cm3 (range, 480-4682 cm3). Median hemoglobin at baseline was 99.0 g/L (range, 62-141 g/L), and median PLT count was 247 × 109/L (range, 57-1265 × 109/L); 13.7% of pts had a baseline PLT count of 50 to < 100 × 109/L. Most pts received a starting dose of 20 mg bid (62.7%; n = 32) or 15 mg bid (23.5%; n = 12); the rest started treatment at 5 mg bid. Most pts completed treatment as per protocol (86.3%; n = 44); 9.8% (n = 5) discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). Other reasons for discontinuation included disease progression and loss to follow-up (2.0% each). The most common hematologic AEs were anemia (62.7%; grade 3/4, 47.1%) and thrombocytopenia (29.4%; grade 3/4, 7.8%). Nonhematologic AEs in ≥ 10% of pts included constipation (13.7%; grade 3/4, 0%), abnormal hepatic function (11.8%; grade 3/4, 3.9%), and nasopharyngitis (11.8%; grade 3/4, 0%). No deaths occurred on study. At wk 24, 30.0% of evaluable pts (15/50) experienced ≥ 50% reduction in palpable spleen length from baseline; 26.0% (13/50) had a ≥ 35% reduction in spleen volume. The majority of pts (52.0%; 26/50) had a ≥ 50% reduction in palpable spleen length from baseline at any time by wk 24; 38.0% (19/50) had a ≥ 35% reduction in spleen volume by wk 24. Ruxolitinib treatment led to clinically significant improvements in symptoms, with 75.0% of evaluable pts (30/40) achieving a ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in MFSAF total symptom score at wk 24. Improvements were also observed in quality of life and role functioning (as assessed by the EORTC-QLQ), with pts reporting reductions in MF-related symptoms, including fatigue, pain, and appetite loss. Overall, IgM, CD3, CD4, and CD8 levels remained stable during treatment; IgG levels decreased slightly in the first 4 wk but then increased to near baseline levels (Figure). CONCLUSIONS: As observed in other studies of ruxolitinib, most pts in this study experienced spleen size reductions and improvement in symptoms. The most common AEs were anemia and thrombocytopenia, consistent with previous reports. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of ruxolitinib on the levels of different immune markers, an analysis not conducted in previous studies with ruxolitinib, and identified no negative effects on the levels of these markers during the course of treatment. The safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib here is consistent with the phase 3 COMFORT studies and the phase 2 Asian study. These findings indicate that ruxolitinib is a safe and effective therapy in Japanese pts with MF, including Int-1-risk pts and those with PLT counts 50 to < 100 × 109/L. Disclosures Kirito: Novartis Pharma KK: Honoraria. Shimoda:Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria. Okada:Novartis Pharma K.K.: Employment. Amagasaki:Novartis Pharma K.K.: Employment. Yonezu:Novartis Pharma K.K.: Employment. Akashi:Asahi Kasei: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Shionogi: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Astellas: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Chugai: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Novartis Pharma K.K.: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd.: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau.

2020 ◽  
Vol 38 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. e19535-e19535 ◽  
Naveen Pemmaraju ◽  
Jingbo Yu ◽  
Shreekant Parasuraman ◽  
Dilan Paranagama ◽  
Jonathan Kish ◽  

e19535 Background: RUX is a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor FDA-approved for treatment (tx) of int/high risk MF. In the COMFORT studies, RUX reduced spleen volume in pts with MF (primary endpoint), with a median time to response of 3 mo. Case reports and clinical studies have shown some pts’ symptoms and/or splenomegaly improve upon RUX reinitiation after interruption. In the era of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), dose optimization and identifying indicators for tx changes remain major challenges. This study describes tx patterns and clinical outcomes of pts with MF with RUX interruption and retreatment in community-based clinical practices. Methods: Two independent patient care data sources were queried (not directly compared): (1) Cardinal Health Oncology Provider Extended Network (OPEN), (2) HealthCore Integrated Research Environment (HIRE); retrospective review of medical charts was conducted. Rigorous entry criteria for this analysis included: age ≥18 y; primary MF (PMF), post-polycythemia vera (PV) MF, or post-essential thrombocythemia (ET) MF diagnosis between 1/1/2012–12/31/2016 (OPEN) or 1/2013–11/2017 (HIRE); use of RUX for MF; and documented physician-directed RUX interruption. MF-related symptoms, splenomegaly, and tx dose and patterns were analyzed. Results: 26 pts met entry criteria (Table). Pre-interruption median (IQR) RUX tx duration was 123 (57–391, OPEN) and 110 (37–148, HIRE) days; 50% had tx interruption within 3 mo. Most interruptions were for adverse events (AEs; 50% and 71%, respectively), followed by (in OPEN) alternative tx (17%), disease progression (8%), no response (8%), or loss of response (8%). After restarting RUX, median (IQR) retreatment duration was 196 (54–553) and 166 (108–262) days, respectively. Symptoms improved in 45% and 43% of evaluable pts, respectively, and spleen size improved in 40% and 33%. Conclusions: Consistent with previous reports, MF symptoms and spleen size improved with RUX retreatment in some pts. While RUX was discontinued for various reasons, one reason for clinical improvements upon reinitiation may be that tx was discontinued before deriving full JAKi benefit. Future studies are warranted investigating JAKi tx sequencing and reinitiation. [Table: see text]

Blood ◽  
2011 ◽  
Vol 118 (21) ◽  
pp. 5170-5170 ◽  
Giovanni Barosi ◽  
Francisco Cervantes ◽  
Dina Ben-Yehuda ◽  
Panagiotis Panagiotidis ◽  
Jose Ricardo Perez ◽  

Abstract Abstract 5170 Background: There are currently no approved, effective drug therapies for myelofibrosis (MF). Ruxolitinib (INC424), a potent and selective oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has recently demonstrated rapid and durable reductions in splenomegaly and improved disease-related symptoms, role functioning, and quality of life in 2 phase 3 studies in patients with MF. Both studies met their primary endpoint of the proportion of patients with ≥35% reduction in spleen volume at 24 weeks (COMFORT-I) and at 48 weeks (COMFORT-II): 41.9% vs 0.7% (ruxolitinib vs placebo, P <.0001) and 28.5% vs 0% (ruxolitinib vs best available therapy, P <.0001), respectively. The most common grade ≥3 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were thrombocytopenia and anemia, which were manageable and rarely led to discontinuation (COMFORT-I: n=1 each; COMFORT-II: thrombocytopenia, n=1; anemia, n=0). Because of the limited available treatment options and medical need, ruxolitinib has been made available through an individual supply program (ISP) outside the United States. Methods: Patients with PMF, PPV-MF or PET-MF who are determined by their physicians to be in need of treatment are considered for eligibility, irrespective of JAK2 mutation status. As in the COMFORT studies, the starting dose of ruxolitinib is determined on the basis of baseline platelet count and can be adjusted for efficacy and safety. Dose changes during treatment are registered, and AEs and serious AEs (SAEs) are monitored throughout the study. Results: To date, 231 patients have been screened at more than 150 study sites in 28 countries, including Canada, Australia, and locations in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. The baseline characteristics for patients whose requests for access were approved/enrolled (n=200) and denied/pending (n=31) are shown below (Table). The patient characteristics are generally similar to those expected in the overall MF patient population. To date, the proportion of patients with the JAK2V617F mutation enrolled in this ISP (68.5%) is higher than that for the general MF population (50–60%) and may reflect the tendency of physicians to include more JAK2V617F-positive patients in the ISP, even though ruxolitinib has demonstrated comparable efficacy in both patient types (Verstovsek S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(12):1117–1127). Thrombocytopenia and herpes zoster were each reported as an AE in 1 patient, and no SAEs have been reported. Conclusions: Ruxolitinib is currently the only drug to have completed phase 3 studies for the treatment of MF and has garnered a substantial number of requests for access through the individual supply program. Disclosures: Barosi: Novartis: Consultancy. Cervantes:Bristol-Myers-Squibb: Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Panagiotidis:Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Roche: Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; GSK: Honoraria. Perez:Novartis: Employment. Orlando-Harper:Novartis: Employment. Martin:Novartis Pharma AG: Employment. Willenbacher:Amgen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Roche: Honoraria, Research Funding; Sandoz: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Mundipharma: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; AESCA: Honoraria, Research Funding. Ojeda:Novartis: Consultancy. Gisslinger:Novartis: Speakers Bureau; Celgene Austria: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Aop-Orphan: Speakers Bureau. Knoops:Novartis: Consultancy.

2012 ◽  
Vol 30 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. 6625-6625 ◽  
Claire N Harrison ◽  
Jean-Jacques Kiladjian ◽  
Heinz Gisslinger ◽  
Francesco Passamonti ◽  
L. Andres Sirulnik ◽  

6625^ Background: Ruxolitinib is a potent and selective oral JAK1/2 inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis (MF). Ruxolitinib has demonstrated rapid and durable reductions in splenomegaly and improved disease-related symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in 2 phase 3 studies (COMFORT-I and –II) in patients (pts) with primary MF (PMF), post-polycythemia vera-MF (PPV-MF), or post-essential thrombocythemia-MF (PET-MF). This analysis evaluated associations between cytokine levels and spleen size reductions in the COMFORT-II study. Methods: COMFORT-II is a randomized (2:1), open-label, phase 3 study comparing the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib with BAT. Spleen volume was measured by MRI every 12 weeks and spleen length by palpation at each study visit. Plasma samples were analyzed using Rules Based Medicines Human MAP v1.6; 89 cytokines were measured at BL and wks 4, 24, and 48. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the correlation between BL or change from BL in cytokine levels with % change of spleen size. Results: In the ruxolitinib arm, association was found between changes in TNF-α and leptin levels and % spleen volume reduction at wk 24 (TNF-α: N = 93; correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43; false discovery rate adjusted P value [P] < .01; leptin: N = 96; R = -0.28; P = .09) and wk 48 (TNF-α: N = 86; R = 0.43; P < .01; leptin: N = 87; R = -0.34; P = .02) that was not observed with BAT and was independent of JAK2V617F status. For ruxolitinib-treated JAK2V617F+ pts, higher leptin levels at BL were associated with greater % spleen length reductions at wk 48 (N = 45; R = -0.44; P = .11). A clear trend was observed for increased leptin levels that preceded weight gain on ruxolitinib treatment. For ruxolitinib-treated JAK2V617F+ pts, decreased IL-8 at wk 4 was associated with % spleen volume reductions at wk 24 (N = 68; R = 0.28; P = .24) and wk 48 (N = 60; R = 0.38; P = .15). Conclusions: This analysis has shown statistically significant associations between changes in cytokine levels and spleen size reductions. Further analysis is in progress to determine associations between cytokine levels and QoL or symptoms and to confirm these observations in an independent data set.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107815522199553
Joshua Richter ◽  
Vamshi Ruthwik Anupindi ◽  
Jason Yeaw ◽  
Suneel Kudaravalli ◽  
Stojan Zavisic ◽  

Introduction Real-world evidence on later line treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is sparse. We evaluated clinical outcomes among RRMM patients in the 1-year following treatment with pomalidomide or daratumumab and compared economic outcomes between RRMM patients and non-MM patients. Patient and Methods Adult patients with ≥1 claim of pomalidomide or daratumumab were identified between January 2012 and February 2018 using IQVIA PharMetrics® Plus US claims database. Patients were required to have a diagnosis or treatment for MM and a claim of any immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors before the index date. Mean time to new therapy, overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier curve and adverse events (AEs) were reported over the 1-year post-index period. RRMM patients were also matched to a non-MM comparator cohort and economic outcomes were compared between the two cohorts. Results 289 RRMM patients were matched to 1,445 patients without MM. Most prevalent hematological AE was anemia (72.0%) and non-hematological AE was infections (75.4%). Mean (SD) time to a new treatment was 4.7 (5.3) months and median OS was 14.6 months. RRMM patients had significantly higher hospitalizations and physician office visits (Both P < .0001) compared to non-MM patients. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients with RRMM had 4.9 times (95% CI 3.8-6.4, P < .0001) the total healthcare costs compared with patients without MM. The major driver of total costs among RRMM patients was pharmacy costs (67.3%). Conclusion RRMM patients showed a high frequency of AEs, low OS, and a substantial economic burden suggesting need for effective treatment options.

Blood ◽  
2020 ◽  
Tina Dutt ◽  
Rebecca J Shaw ◽  
Matthew James Stubbs ◽  
Jun Yong ◽  
Benjamin Bailiff ◽  

The cornerstone of life-saving therapy in immune mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) has been plasma exchange (PEX) combined with immunomodulatory strategies. Caplacizumab, a novel anti-von Willebrand factor nanobody, trialled in two multicentre, randomised-placebo-controlled trials leading to EU and FDA approval, has been available in the UK through a patient-access scheme. Data was collected retrospectively from 2018-2020 for 85 patients receiving caplacizumab, including 4 children, from 22 UK hospitals. Patient characteristics and outcomes in the real-world clinical setting were compared with caplacizumab trial endpoints and historical outcomes in the pre-caplacizumab era. 84/85 patients received steroid and rituximab alongside PEX; 26% required intubation. Median time to platelet count normalisation (3 days), duration of PEX (7 days) and hospital stay (12 days) was comparable with RCT data. Median duration of PEX and time from PEX initiation to platelet count normalisation was favourable compared with historical outcomes (p&lt;0.05). TTP recurrence occurred in 5/85 patients; all with persistent ADAMTS13 activity &lt;5iu/dL. Of 31 adverse events in 26 patients, 17/31 (55%) were bleeding episodes and 5/31 (16%) were thrombotic events (two unrelated to caplacizumab); mortality was 6% (5/85), with no deaths attributed to caplacizumab. In 4/5 deaths caplacizumab was introduced &gt;48 hours after PEX initiation (3-21 days). This real-world evidence represents the first and largest series of TTP patients receiving caplacizumab outside clinical trials, including paediatric patients. Representative of true clinical practice, the findings provide valuable information for clinicians treating TTP globally.

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S807-S807
John Raymond U Go ◽  
Cristina G Corsini Campioli ◽  
Omar Abu Saleh ◽  
John Wilson ◽  
Sharon Deml ◽  

Abstract Background Mycobacterium septicum is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium. It is a ubiquitous organism capable of causing infections in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Only a few cases have been reported to date, and standard therapeutic regimens, and optimal treatment duration have not been defined. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients seen at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN from July 2014 to March 2020 from whom Mycobacterium septicum was isolated in culture by our clinical microbiology laboratory. Results There were 12 patients identified with M. septicum infection – 7 males and 5 females. The average age was 67 years, with an age range of 48 to 80 years. Seven of 12 isolates obtained were from sputum samples. Only one patient was on immunosuppressive medication. Three cases were considered clinically significant infections for which directed anti-mycobacterial therapy was instituted. In two of these three cases, co-infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was seen. Underlying structural lung disease was present in the two cases of pulmonary infections. Peritoneal dialysis catheter-related peritonitis was seen in the third case. All the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). The isolates were resistant to clarithromycin and doxycycline. Patient Characteristics, Associated M. septicum Illness, and Therapy Provided Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of the Mycobacterium septicum Isolates, MIC (mcg/mL) and Interpretation Patient Demographics and Specimen Source of Mycobacerium septicum Isolates Conclusion M. septicum is an unusual cause of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. The presence of a foreign body may increase the risk of infection. Individuals with underlying structural lung disease are also likely to be at increased risk of developing pulmonary infection. Generalized treatment recommendations are limited by the lack of prospective controlled trials; hence, optimal antibiotic regimen and treatment duration have not been firmly established. Susceptibility testing should be performed to guide treatment selection, but the use of combination therapy with potentially empiric agents like amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and TMP-SMX as demonstrated in this small study, can be considered. A high rate of macrolide resistance was noted in our study. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (S1) ◽  
pp. 26-26
Scott Gibson ◽  
Sita Saunders ◽  
Maximilian Blüher ◽  
Amanda Hansson Hedblom ◽  
Rafael Torrejon Torres ◽  

IntroductionAlthough randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are recognized as providing the highest level of clinical evidence, few medical device RCTs are available due to underfunding or inherent challenges associated with trial design. This study examines the extent to which real-world evidence (RWE) supports the recommendations made by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP).MethodsAll MTEP guidance documents published online prior to October 2020 were reviewed. The “case for adoption” recommendation, type of clinical data, and clinical critiques for each MTEP submission were extracted and categorized. RWE was defined as studies with neither blinding nor prospective selection or control of patient characteristics.ResultsOf the MTEP submissions reviewed, 34 of 45 (76%) received a positive recommendation. Independent of outcome, all submissions included RWE, but only 19 (42%) utilized RCT evidence (15 were recommended and four were not). Meta-analyses of RWE were used whenever possible. The most common clinical critiques in unsuccessful submissions were the following: (i) not generalizable to the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS); (ii) low quality; (iii) likelihood of bias; (iv) trial design faults; (v) uncertain benefit; and (vi) evidence unrelated to scope.ConclusionsThis study suggests that while the use of RCTs has not always led to a positive recommendation, RWE can be valuable in decision-making. Evidence that is generalizable to the NHS, is related to the scope, and shows clear indication of benefit is more likely to positively influence MTEP decision-making.

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