Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle tactics through the metrics of survivability

Author(s):  
Ian Lunsford ◽  
Thomas H Bradley

Aircraft survivability is a classical consideration of combat aircraft design and tactical development, but the fundamental model of aircraft survivability must be updated to be able to consider modern tactical scenarios that are applicable to unmanned aircraft. This paper seeks therefore to define the set of design tradeoffs and an evaluation of the tactical effectiveness for unmanned aircraft survivability. Traditional and modern survivability evaluation methods are presented and integrated into a computational simulation to create a probabilistic evaluation of unmanned aircraft survivability. The results demonstrate the development of design tradeoffs for a hypothetical unmanned C-130J Hercules against a single man-portable air defense system. The discussion focuses on the demonstration of the utility of this survivability evaluation framework for consideration of survivability in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design, the utility of considering survivability in the design of multi-UAV configurations (including the loyal wingman and swarms), and the value of the probabilistic survivability model for multi-aircraft simulations.

2018 ◽  
Vol 161 ◽  
pp. 03021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vinh Nguyen ◽  
Oksana Solenaya ◽  
Petr Smirnov

Adding an onboard manipulation system to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) significantly complicates framework, functioning algorithms, and leads to an increase in overall dimensions. The physical interaction of the manipulator with objects influences to unstabilization of UAV, which in turn leads to difficulties in positioning the UAV and reduces the accuracy of gripper motion. In addition, the physical interaction of the manipulator with objects requires increased power resources of UAVs. The article analyzes modern research of UAVs with a manipulator, including flight control problems, avoidance of contact with the earth, surrounding space, as well as manipulations with the captured object. On the basis of the analysis, a list of new problems arising in the physical interaction of UAVs with objects through an embedded manipulator is formulated.


Author(s):  
Ryan W. Wohleber ◽  
Gloria L. Calhoun ◽  
Gregory J. Funke ◽  
Heath Ruff ◽  
C.-Y. Peter Chiu ◽  
...  

Reliability of automation is known to influence operator reliance on automation. What is less understood is how the influence of reliability and the effects of operator fatigue might interact. The present study investigated the impact of automation reliability on accuracy and reliance and how this impact changes with level of fatigue during simulated multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operation. Participants ( N = 131) completed a two-hour simulated multi-UAV mission assisted by an automated decision making aid of either high or low reliability. A decrease in subjective task engagement and performance over time marked the induction of passive fatigue by the mission. Participants were more trusting in the high reliability condition than in the low reliability condition. Finally, reliance decreased with time at any reliability, but a significant interaction between reliability and time on task indicated that the decrease was of smaller magnitude when the automation was reliable.


Author(s):  
Cheolwan Kim ◽  
Yung-Gyo Lee

A general procedure of preliminary design of aircraft and one-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) applied to aircraft design is introduced briefly. Then, FSI and optimization technique are implemented to optimize a wing shape of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for minimum cruise drag. FSI analysis and optimization processes for minimizing drag of UAV are explained. Design variables are wing taper ratio and dihedral angle, and objective function is the cruise drag of UAV. Fluid solution is generated with Euler solver and structural analysis is performed with FEM solver, Diamond. Sample points are selected by Design of Experiment (DOE) method and Kriging method is used for generation of an approximation model.


Author(s):  
O. M. Pereguda ◽  
A. V. Rodionov ◽  
S. P. Samoilyk

The article proposes an approach to increasing the survivability of class I unmanned aerial vehicles in emergency operations which involves development of an onboard information system for identifying emergency occasions in flight and the synthesis of a control action on the unmanned aircraft in case of hazardous factors influence. As the result of the analysis of the main trends in the development of unmanned aerial vehicles onboard control systems, it was found that the leading countries are paying significant attention to increasing their intellectualization level. This is necessary to ensure the fulfilment of complex tasks that are assigned to modern unmanned aerial vehicles in the military and civilian spheres. The main directions of such researches are identifying the problem of swarm application of unmanned aerial vehicles and expanding the capabilities of onboard control systems maintain automatically the values of certain parameters when the flight conditions changes. As the approach to increasing the survivability of a class I unmanned aerial vehicle, a vision of an onboard information system for identifying emergency occasions in flight and synthesis of control action is proposed, the functional purpose of its components is described. It is suggested that this system will be comprised of a subsystem for identifying emergency cases in flight and determining the class I unmanned aerial vehicle threat level and a subsystem for synthesizing control action. Governing documents and regulations for the state aviation of Ukraine determines the list of aircraft emergency occasions. Article mentions the necessity of detailing emergency occasions in flight, which are typical for class I unmanned aerial vehicles and an approach to their classification is proposed. A vision of the nearest partial scientific tasks and a list of expected scientific results of research in this direction are given.


1992 ◽  
Vol 45 (3) ◽  
pp. 352-368 ◽  
Author(s):  
P. Gardner ◽  
C. R. Day

Whilst unmanned aircraft (UMA) can be said to encompass missiles, targets for weapon training, preprogrammed reconnaissance drones and civilian systems such as radio-controlled models used to carry cameras, for the purpose of this paper we will restrict ourselves to aircraft which are capable of sustaining autonomous flight and accepting navigation commands whilst airborne. The terms applied to unmanned aircraft are variously UMA, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV), Drone and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).


2013 ◽  
Vol 198 ◽  
pp. 194-199
Author(s):  
Andrzej Majka

Designing and building of the unmanned aircraft, especially light and ultra light vehicles, is mainly performed using the experience gained when constructing the flying models. There have not been uniform principles of building and exploiting of the mini and micro UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) in the form of regulations similar to those for manned airplanes. The unmanned vehicles of these classes in terms of their abilities and attractive price are more frequently exploited using the same air area as manned airplanes performing missions over the inhabited areas. An urgent necessity arises to work out the norms of flight suitability of the mini and micro unmanned aerial vehicles. The work contains the analysis of suitability of the current aviation regulations to determine the requirements for the mini unmanned vehicles. The work concentrates on the phenomenon of determining the symmetrical loads from the maneuvers and the turbulence atmosphere. The result of this analysis is the Limit Maneuver Envelope, Limit Gust Envelope and Limit Combined Envelope for mini UAV. The analyzed flight states allowed selecting the so called design cases which can become a basis for determining the norms of loading of mini unmanned aerial vehicles which can constitute the beginning of the regulations for building of the unmanned aerial vehicles of this class.


2020 ◽  
Vol 118 (5) ◽  
pp. 487-500 ◽  
Author(s):  
P Corey Green ◽  
Harold E Burkhart

Abstract Abstract An unmanned aircraft system was evaluated for its potential to capture imagery for use in plantation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) regeneration surveys. Five stands located in the Virginia Piedmont were evaluated. Imagery was collected using a recreational grade unmanned aerial vehicle at three flight heights above ground with a camera capable of capturing red–green–blue imagery. Two computer vision approaches were evaluated for their potential to automatically detect seedlings. The results of the study indicated that the proposed methods were limited in capability of generating reliable counts of seedlings in the locations evaluated. In conditions with low numbers of natural seedlings and sufficiently large planted seedlings, the detection methods performed with higher levels of accuracy. Challenges including global positioning system errors and image distortion made comparisons between ground samples and imagery difficult. In summary, unmanned aircraft systems have potential for use in plantation pine regeneration surveys if the challenges encountered can be addressed. Study Implications: Following the establishment of a pine plantation, it is important to estimate survival and possible recruitment of natural conifers. As the popularity of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has increased, forest managers have begun to explore their use for resource assessment. This study investigated using imagery captured with a recreational grade UAS, in conjunction with automated computer vision counting techniques, for use in regeneration surveys. The results of this research indicate that significant challenges must be addressed before UAS can become an integral component of survival assessments. Aircraft constraints, legal restrictions, low image quality, and high levels of natural pine regeneration limited the success of the proposed methods. In selected cases, however, favorable conditions led to accurate detection. Additionally, UAS imagery has the potential for assessing other stand characteristics such as competing vegetation and drainage patterns. Going forward, UAS imagery and automated counting approaches have the potential to supplement, but not fully replace, ground regeneration surveys if the challenges encountered in this study can be addressed.


Author(s):  
V. N. Evdokimenkov ◽  
M. N. Krasilshchikov ◽  
N. A. Lyapin

Actual level of unmanned aerial vehicles development allows us to consider them as an effective tool for solving a variety of civil and military tasks (primarily reconnaissance and strike). At the same time, one of the most important problems associated with the combat use of unmanned aerial vehicles remains to ensure their high survivability in organized counteraction conditions, the source of which can be both ground-based air defense and fighter aircraft (manned or unmanned). For this reason, the study and optimization of unmanned aerial vehicle evasion maneuvers from an enemy air attack remains relevant. In the article on the basis of game approach the algorithm of the unmanned aerial vehicle trajectory guaranteeing management providing its evasion from attack of the air opponent is offered. The study of unmanned aerial vehicle maneuverability tactically significant indicators influence on the effectiveness of the evasion maneuver. The results of simulation, demonstrated the influence of unmanned aerial vehicle maneuvering capabilities on achievement a positional advantage in order to solve the problem of evasion from enemy air attack, are presented. A series of computational experiments, whose results allow to assert that the use of the developed algorithm to guarantee control regardless of the relative initial state target UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and UAV-interceptor with the comparability of their maneuvering capabilities in 73 % of cases provides the positional advantage of the target UAV, the UAV position relative to the interceptor makes inefficient use of the latest posted guided missiles, are performed. Note that the increase in the values of tactical indicators that reflect the maneuverability of the attacked UAV compared to the enemy, leads to the fact that in all cases, regardless of the initial position of the attacked UAV relative to the UAV-interceptor, it is ensured that it is brought beyond the zone of possible launches of guided missiles.


Author(s):  
Ali Dinç

In this study, preliminary sizing of a turboprop engine powered high altitude unmanned aerial vehicle and it`s propulsion system for an assumed mission profile in Turkey was performed. Aircraft mission profile is one of the most important design inputs in aircraft design. While the aircraft is dimensioned according to the requirements in the specification (useful payload, range, target cost, etc.), parameters such as cruise altitude and speed within the mission profile affect the engine type, power level, fuel quantity, and therefore the overall dimensions and total weight of the aircraft. The unmanned aerial vehicle with turboprop engine investigated in this study, can stay in the air for at least 24 hours at high altitude (40000 ft) and can be used for border surveillance, coast control, forest fires and land exploration.


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