scholarly journals Exploration of the value of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the hCG trigger day in predicting pregnancy outcomes of PCOS patients undergoing IVF/ICSI: a retrospective cohort study

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yiqing Yang ◽  
Bowen Liu ◽  
Gengxiang Wu ◽  
Jing Yang

Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with the disorders of estrogen(E2) and progesterone(P) secretion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the progesterone level or progesterone/estradiol(P/E2) ratio on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger day and the outcome of in vitro fertilization in PCOS patients and explore the value of progesterone and P/E2 ratio for predicting the clinical pregnancy. Methods The clinical data of 1254 PCOS patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were retrospectively analyzed, including baseline characteristics such as age, body mass index, basal sex hormone levels, et al., as well as ovarian stimulation data and clinic outcome. Results The number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001) was greater in the high progesterone group (progesterone ≥ 0.92 ng/mL). In the high P/E2 group(P/E2 ratio ≥ 0.3), the number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001), as well as the rate of high-quality embryos (P = 0.040) were significantly decreased. In ultralong GnRH agonist protocol, the implantation rate(P < 0.001), hCG positive rate (P < 0.001), clinical pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) and live birth rate (P < 0.001) were all significantly higher than long GnRH agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol. The clinical pregnancy rate of high progesterone group was significantly lower than that of low progesterone group in ultralong GnRH agonist (P = 0.008). The progesterone level could be used as an indicator to predict the positive clinical pregnancy (long GnRH agonist: P = 0.001; ultralong GnRH agonist: P < 0.001) except in cycles using GnRH antagonist (P = 0.169). In the ultralong GnRH agonist, the value of progesterone level in the prediction of clinical pregnancy was significantly higher than that of the P/E2 ratio (P = 0.021). Conclusions In PCOS patients, the progesterone level is associated with clinical pregnancy rate while P/E2 ratio is not. In subgroup analysis using three different COS protocols, a significant association between progesterone level and clinical pregnancy rate can be observed in the long GnRH agonist protocol and ultralong GnRH agonist protocol. The progesterone level is significantly better than the P/E2 ratio in predicting the pregnancy outcome of PCOS patients, especially in ultralong GnRH agonist cycles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Gökşen Görgülü ◽  
Merve Çakır Köle ◽  
Oya Aldemir ◽  
Emre Köle ◽  
Serdar Dilbaz

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate microdose flare-up Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol with respect to their effects on in-vitro fertilization (IVF) results in patients with poor ovarian response according to the Bologna Criteria. Material Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in the Assisted Reproduction clinic of University of Health Sciences, Etlik Zübeyde Hanım Gynaecology Training and Research Hospital. A total of 645 patients who had been diagnosed as poor responders in our clinic, between 2007 and 2018, and received treatment with either microdose flare-up GnRH agonist protocol (n=250, 38.8%) or GnRH antagonist protocol (n=395, 61.2%), were included in the study. Results: The mean age of the study group was 34.5±5.5 years. Comparisons showed that IVF cycle cancellation frequency (p<0.01), third day estradiol level (p=0.04) and third day follicle stimulating hormone level (p<0.01) were significantly greater in patients who underwent the microdose flare-up protocol. In the GnRH antagonist group, the number of surviving children (p=0.01), antral follicle count (p<0.01), follicle count on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (p<0.01), endometrial thickness on hCG day (p<0.01), number of oocytes collected (p<0.01), mature oocyte count (p<0.01), embryo transfer number (p<0.01) were higher compared to the microdose flare-up protocol group. The two groups were similar in terms of clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusions: In terms of clinical pregnancy rate, the IVF results of microdose flare-up and GnRH antagonist protocols are similar. Further studies are needed to reach more comprehensive results on the subject.

Akshaya Kumar Mahapatro ◽  
Abhishek Radhakrishan

Background: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fertilisation outcome in patients having normal or elevated day-2 serum progesterone level undergone IVF by using GnRH antagonist.Methods: A retrospective study conducted in Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Chennai during January 2013 to March 2014. According to patient’s Day-2 serum progesterone level the total no of cases (N=151) were divided into two groups group-1 (N=116) with progesterone value ≤1.5ng/ml and group-2 (N=35) with progesterone value>1.5ng/ml. Ovarian stimulation was started with recombinant FSH on day 2 and GnRH antagonist injections started from day 6 of stimulation. Total dose of gonadotropins, days of gonadotrophin injections, no of eggs collected, Clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were compared between two groups.Results: Two groups were similar with regards to age, BMI, days of gonadotrophins and total doses of gonadotrophins. Incidence of elevated P level was 23.17%. Total pregnancy rate was 36.42%. A non-statistically-significant difference was observed in clinical pregnancy (37.06% vs 34.28%) and live birth (32.75% vs 28.57%) between the normal and elevated progesterone groups.Conclusions: Elevated day-2 serum progesterone level   was associated with lower clinical pregnancy rate but it was not statistically-significant.

Obesity ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 21 (8) ◽  
pp. 1608-1612 ◽  
Zaher O. Merhi ◽  
Julia Keltz ◽  
Athena Zapantis ◽  
Joshua Younger ◽  
Dara Berger ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Suleyman Guven ◽  
Sebnem Alanya Tosun ◽  
Emine Seda Guvendag Guven

Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mean blastomere diameter (MBD) on pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cases undergoing the long agonist cycle protocol. A total of 84 cases were evaluated within the scope of this observational prospective study. All cases were normoresponders, under 35 years old, with the long agonist protocol applied and single embryo (grade I or II) transfer performed. On the third day after ICSI, each embryo selected for transfer was subjected to measurement of the mean blastomere diameter (MBD) at ×25 magnification. Results The mean female age was 30.14 ± 3.32 years, and the total clinical pregnancy rate was 33.3%. In the group that got pregnant, MBD was found to be statistically significantly higher than in the nonpregnant group. In terms of predicting clinical pregnancy, when the MBD value of 49.73 μm was accepted as the best cutoff value, the sensitivity was calculated as 75% and specificity as 53.6%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 18.9% in cases below this value, whereas clinical pregnancy rate was 44.7% in cases with this value and above. In other words, when the MBD value rose above 49.73 μm from a value below 49.73 μm, the clinical pregnancy rate increased by an average of 2.3 times. Conclusions With MBD measurement, it is possible to select the embryo with the best implantation capability in microinjection cycles with the long luteal agonist protocol.

Pattraporn Chera-aree ◽  
Isarin Thanaboonyawat ◽  
Benjawan Thokha ◽  
Pitak Laokirkkiat

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer between embryos cultured in a time-lapse monitoring system (TLS) and those cultured in a conventional incubator (CI).Methods: The medical records of 250 fertilized embryos from 141 patients undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technology at a tertiary hospital from June 2018 to May 2020 were reviewed. The study population was divided into TLS and CI groups at a 1 to 1 ratio (125 embryos per group). The primary outcome was the live birth rate. Results: The TLS group had a significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (46.4% vs. 27.2%, p=0.002), implantation rate (27.1% vs. 12.0%, p=0.004), and live birth rate (32% vs. 18.4%, p=0.013) than the CI group. Furthermore, subgroup analyses of the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in the different age groups favored the TLS group. However, this difference only reached statistical significance in the live birth rate in women aged over 40 years and the clinical pregnancy rate in women aged 35–40 years (p=0.048 and p=0.031, respectively). The miscarriage rate, cleavage rate, and blastocyst rate were comparable.Conclusion: TLS application improved the live birth rate, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rate, particularly in the advanced age group in this study, while the other reproductive outcomes were comparable. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to further explore the ramifications of these findings, especially in different age groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Han-Chih Hsieh ◽  
Chun-I Lee ◽  
En-Yu Lai ◽  
Jia-Ying Su ◽  
Yi-Ting Huang ◽  

Abstract Background For women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), the clinical benefit of embryo transfer at the blastocyst stage (Day 5) versus cleavage stage (Day 3) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and odds of live birth of Day 3 and Day 5 embryo transfer, and more importantly, to address the issue that patients were chosen to receive either transfer protocol due to their underlying clinical characteristics, i.e., confounding by indication. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9,090 IVF cycles collected by Lee Women’s Hospital in Taichung, Taiwan from 1998 to 2014. We utilized the method of propensity score matching to mimic a randomized controlled trial (RCT) where each patient with Day 5 transfer was matched by another patient with Day 3 transfer with respect to other clinical characteristics. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and odds of live birth were compared for women underwent Day 5 transfer and Day 3 transfer to estimate the causal effects. We further investigated the causal effects in subgroups by stratifying age and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). Results Our analyses uncovered an evidence of a significant difference in implantation rate (p=0.04) favoring Day 5 transfer, and showed that Day 3 and Day 5 transfers made no difference in both odds of live birth (p=0.27) and clinical pregnancy rate (p=0.11). With the increase of gestational age, the trend toward non-significance of embryo transfer day in our result appeared to be consistent for subgroups stratified by age and AMH, while all analyses stratified by age and AMH were not statistically significant. Conclusions We conclude that for women without strong indications for Day 3 or Day 5 transfer, there is a small significant difference in implantation rate in favor of Day 5 transfer. However, the two protocols have indistinguishable outcomes on odds of live birth and clinical pregnancy rate.

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