scholarly journals Approaches to multidrug-resistant organism prevention and control in long-term care facilities for older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Valerie Wing Yu Wong ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
Wan In Wei ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong ◽  
Kin On Kwok

Abstract Background Despite clear evidence of benefits in acute-care hospitals, controversy over the effectiveness of IPC measures for MDROs is perceptible and evidence-based practice has not been established. Objective To investigate the effects of IPC interventions on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Data sources Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to September 2020. Eligibility criteria Original and peer-reviewed articles examining the post-intervention effects on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Interventions (i) Horizontal interventions: administrative engagement, barrier precautions, education, environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, performance improvement, and source control; and (ii) vertical intervention: active surveillance plus decolonization. Study appraisal and synthesis We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratios (pRRs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization by intervention duration; and conducted subgroup analyses on different intervention components. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Results Of 3877 studies identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion (eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies reported outcomes associated with MRSA (15 studies), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (four studies), Clostridium difficile (two studies), and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (two studies). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pRRs were close to unity regardless of intervention duration (long: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.10]; medium: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.25–2.68]; short: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.53–1.69]). Vertical interventions in studies with a small sample size showed significant reductions in MRSA colonization while horizontal interventions did not. All studies involving active administrative engagement reported reductions. The risk of bias was high in all but two studies. Conclusions Our meta-analysis did not show any beneficial effects from IPC interventions on MRSA reductions in LTCFs. Our findings highlight that the effectiveness of interventions in these facilities is likely conditional on resource availability—particularly decolonization and barrier precautions, due to their potential adverse events and uncertain effectiveness. Hence, administrative engagement is crucial for all effective IPC programmes. LTCFs should consider a pragmatic approach to reinforce standard precautions as routine practice and implement barrier precautions and decolonization to outbreak responses only.

2019 ◽  
Vol 46 (6) ◽  
pp. 947-959 ◽  
Norma Patricia Rodriguez Rocha ◽  
Hyekyeong Kim

Background. An adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (FVI) has shown benefits for reduced risk of manifesting chronic diseases. Thus, development of effective interventions to promote FVI is paramount. Aim. To assess the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for FVI targeted to healthy population, in comparison with control groups, and identify the moderators contributing to their effectiveness. Method. A database search was conducted in April 2016 and July 2018 using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, Google Scholar, SciELO, and RISS, yielding 19 eligible studies. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane’s Risk of Bias Tool. Random-effects model was used to calculate effect sizes (ES) by weighted standardized mean differences. Results. This meta-analysis includes 19 studies and 6,894 participants. The most common eHealth tool used was Internet-based interventions ( n = 10). Most of studies were conducted in adults ( n = 11), followed by children ( n = 4), and adolescents ( n = 4). The minimum number of behavior change techniques (BCTs) used was one, and the maximum seven. The overall ES was small (0.26, p < .001), favoring eHealth interventions. The between-studies heterogeneity was large ( I2 = 62.77%, p < .001). Subgroup analyses showed that the components with larger ES were tailored interventions (0.27, p < .001), computer-based interventions (0.44, p < .001), and use of ≥7 BCTs (0.42, p < .001). Discussion. All studies showed a positive ES favoring interventions. Large heterogeneity could be explained in part by the number of BCTs and type of eHealth tool used. Nonetheless, more concrete evidence regarding other intervention components effectiveness was limited by small sample size. Conclusion. The use of eHealth tools for the improvement of FVI showed to be more effective compared with nonintervention and interventions not using these technologies. Nonetheless, more research is needed to determine the specific combination of intervention components that could translate into larger effectiveness.

Shenghua Yu ◽  
Hongjie Liu ◽  
Li Xu ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Yan Ma ◽  

Introduction: Acupuncture has been applied with chemical drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the clinic. Whether such combination is effective and safe should be studied although it is recommended by some researchers.Methods: To explore the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture combined with the chemical drugs for AD, databases like PubMed, Web of Science were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on AD treated with acupuncture and chemical drugs to perform meta-analysis. The risk of bias in each study was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias scale. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3.Results: Five studies were included in which only donepezil combined with acupuncture was evaluated. Acupuncture combined with donepezil showed a significant difference in effectiveness rate [RR=1.45, 95% CI (1.19, 1.77), P=0.0002] compared with donepezil. On the comparison of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) score there was no difference. However, after one trial with severe AD patients was removed, acupuncture combined with donepezil showed better effect than donepezil alone. Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with donepezil could work on AD at the early stage or with mild AD, implying that acupuncture could be a complementary therapy for AD at early stage or with mild condition. Besides, scalp acupuncture seems to be more effective on improving cognitive function. However, this conclusion must be considered cautiously, given the small sample size and lack of trials of high quality. Therefore, more high-quality, multicenter, prospective, RCTs with large sample sizes are needed to further clarify the effect of acupuncture combined with chemical drugs for AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yulan Yang ◽  
Hairong Su ◽  
Jian Wen ◽  
Jianyun Hong

Objective. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of acupoint injection for alleviating side effects of chemotherapy in people with cancer. Methods. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Date, and CBM were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception through December 28, 2020. This meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results. A total of 8 RCTs including 557 participants were eligible and included in the meta-analysis. The selected RCTs studied acupoint injection for alleviating side effects of chemotherapy in people with cancer. Statistically significant improvements were observed for the incidence of nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.26, 0.58; P  < 0.00001), the number of leukocyte (MD = 1.89; 95%CI 0.74, 3.03; P  = 0.001), and the number of platelet (MD = 28.82; 95%CI 19.33, 38.30; P  < 0.00001). Two of these studies suggested that acupoint injection can also reduce some other adverse reactions, which showed a statistical difference (RR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.11, 0.75; P  = 0.01). Conclusion. The analysis indicated that acupoint injection can alleviate side effects of chemotherapy in people with cancer. However, due to the high risk of bias and small sample size in the included studies, the results need to be further confirmed by further large, rigorously designed trials.

Heidrun Lioba Wunram ◽  
Max Oberste ◽  
Stefanie Hamacher ◽  
Susanne Neufang ◽  
Nils Grote ◽  

Background: Pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) have gained attention in the pathophysiology and treatment of depressive disorders. At the same time, the therapeutic effect of physical activity seems to work via immunomodulatory pathways. The interventional study “Mood Vibes” analyzed the influence of exercise on depression severity (primary endpoint) in depressive adolescents; the influence of PICs on the clinical outcome was analyzed as a secondary endpoint. Methods: Clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents (N = 64; 28.1% male; mean age = 15.9; mean BMI = 24.6) were included and participated either in Whole Body Vibration (WBV) (n = 21) or bicycle ergometer training (n = 20) in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU). Patients in the control treatment group received TAU only (n = 23). The PICs (interleukin-6—IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α—TNF-α) were analyzed before intervention, after 6 weeks of training (t1), and 8 weeks post-intervention (t2). The effects of the treatment on depression severity were rated by self-rating “Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents” (DIKJ). Results: Basal IL-6 decreased in all groups from t0 to t1, but it increased again in WBV and controls at t2. TNF-α diminished in ergometer and controls from baseline to t1. PIC levels showed no correlation with depression severity at baseline. The influence on DIKJ scores over time was significant for IL-6 in the WBV group (p = 0.008). Sex had an impact on TNF-α (p < 0.001), with higher concentrations in male patients. Higher body mass index was associated with higher IL-6 concentrations over all measurement points (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The positive effects of an intensive add-on exercise therapy on adolescent depression seem to be partly influenced by immunomodulation. A small sample size and non-randomized controls are limitations of this study.

Peter Cox ◽  
Sonal Gupta ◽  
Sizheng Steven Zhao ◽  
David M. Hughes

AbstractThe aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe prevalence of cardiovascular disease in gout, compare these results with non-gout controls and consider whether there were differences according to geography. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies reporting prevalence of any cardiovascular disease in a gout population. Studies with non-representative sampling, where a cohort had been used in another study, small sample size (< 100) and where gout could not be distinguished from other rheumatic conditions were excluded, as were reviews, editorials and comments. Where possible meta-analysis was performed using random-effect models. Twenty-six studies comprising 949,773 gout patients were included in the review. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated for five cardiovascular diseases: myocardial infarction (2.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI)s 1.6, 5.0), heart failure (8.7%; 95% CI 2.9, 23.8), venous thromboembolism (2.1%; 95% CI 1.2, 3.4), cerebrovascular accident (4.3%; 95% CI 1.8, 9.7) and hypertension (63.9%; 95% CI 24.5, 90.6). Sixteen studies reported comparisons with non-gout controls, illustrating an increased risk in the gout group across all cardiovascular diseases. There were no identifiable reliable patterns when analysing the results by country. Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with gout and should prompt vigilance from clinicians to the need to assess and stratify cardiovascular risk. Future research is needed to investigate the link between gout, hyperuricaemia and increased cardiovascular risk and also to establish a more thorough picture of prevalence for less common cardiovascular diseases.

2016 ◽  
Vol 175 (2) ◽  
pp. R65-R80 ◽  
Irina Bancos ◽  
Shrikant Tamhane ◽  
Muhammad Shah ◽  
Danae A Delivanis ◽  
Fares Alahdab ◽  

ObjectiveTo perform a systematic review of published literature on adrenal biopsy and to assess its performance in diagnosing adrenal malignancy.MethodsMedline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial were searched from inception to February 2016. Reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality in duplicate.ResultsWe included 32 observational studies reporting on 2174 patients (39.4% women, mean age 59.8 years) undergoing 2190 adrenal mass biopsy procedures. Pathology was described in 1621/2190 adrenal lesions (689 metastases, 68 adrenocortical carcinomas, 64 other malignancies, 464 adenomas, 226 other benign, 36 pheochromocytomas, and 74 others). The pooled non-diagnostic rate (30 studies, 2013 adrenal biopsies) was 8.7% (95%CI: 6–11%). The pooled complication rate (25 studies, 1339 biopsies) was 2.5% (95%CI: 1.5–3.4%). Studies were at a moderate risk for bias. Most limitations related to patient selection, assessment of outcome, and adequacy of follow-up. Only eight studies (240 patients) could be included in the diagnostic performance analysis with a sensitivity and specificity of 87 and 100% for malignancy, 70 and 98% for adrenocortical carcinoma, and 87 and 96% for metastasis respectively.ConclusionsEvidence based on small sample size and moderate risk of bias suggests that adrenal biopsy appears to be most useful in the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis in patients with a history of extra-adrenal malignancy. Adrenal biopsy should only be performed if the expected findings are likely to alter the management of the individual patient and after biochemical exclusion of catecholamine-producing tumors to help prevent potentially life-threatening complications.

Circulation ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 140 (Suppl_2) ◽  
Conor Crowley ◽  
Peter Clardy ◽  
Jessica McCannon ◽  
Rebecca Logiudice

Introduction: Compliance to ACLS cardiac arrest algorithm is low and associated with worse outcomes from in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCA). Reasons for non-compliance include reduced communication due to chaotic nature of IHCAs and difficulty timing epinephrine administration and rhythm check intervals. Hypothesis: Delegating two separate code team members for rhythm and epinephrine timing will increase adherence to ACLS algorithm during IHCAs. Methods: This is a pre-post interventional study of IHCAs at a single academic medical center. Two stopwatches were placed on all code carts and two new timekeeping roles were created. Education was provided to staff regarding the alteration of existing code team member roles for the use of stopwatches. Algorithm adherence was analyzed pre and post implementation of timekeeper roles. Deviation from the 2-minute rhythm check or 3-5-minute epinephrine administration was counted as one deviation. Anonymous surveys were delivered to evaluate providers perceived benefits of timekeeper roles for IHCAs. Results: Data from 13 pre intervention IHCAs were compared to 12 IHCAs post intervention. The initial rhythm was PEA/asystole in 69% pre-intervention vs 83% post intervention. Prior to implementation 82 deviations vs. 11 deviations post implementation occurred (p=0.006). The mean time until first dose of epinephrine was administered pre intervention was 2.3 ± 3.3 minutes vs 0.4 ±1 minute post. Pre-implementation ROSC rate was 53.8% vs. 66.7% post intervention. Surveys were delivered to 100% of code team members post intervention, with a 79% response rate. Surveys demonstrate providers felt time keeping roles made it easier to track epinephrine administration and rhythm checks. On a Likert scale, 78% of providers “strongly agree” that the use of timekeeping roles and devices improved code team communication. Conclusion: Two separate timekeeper roles during IHCAs improved algorithm compliance, code team function and communication, and was favored by code team members. Timekeeper roles may be associated with improved rates of ROSC and less time until the first dose of epinephrine is administered. This study is limited by its small sample size, single center and requires validation.

Li Wang ◽  
Yiwen Zhang ◽  
Jiajun Zhong ◽  
Yuan Zhang ◽  
Shuisheng Zhou ◽  

Objective: The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in acetaminophen-induced liver injury has been investigated in animal experiments, but individual studies with a small sample size cannot be used to draw a clear conclusion. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies to explore the potential of using MSCs in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Methods: Eight databases were searched for studies reporting the effects of MSCs on acetaminophen hepatoxicity. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies was applied to assess the methodological quality. A meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.4 and STATA/SE 16.0 software. Results: Eleven studies involving 159 animals were included according to PRISMA statement guidelines. Significant associations were found for MSCs with the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) (standardized mean difference (SMD) − 2.58, p < 0.0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (SMD − 1.75, p = 0.001), glutathione (GSH) (SMD 3.7, p < 0.0001), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (SMD 1.86, p = 0.022), interleukin 10 (IL-10) (SMD 5.14, p = 0.0002) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (SMD − 4.48, p = 0.011) compared with those in the control group. The subgroup analysis showed that the tissue source of MSCs significantly affected the therapeutic efficacy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results demonstrate that MSCs could be a potential treatment for acetaminophen-related liver injury.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
M P Rimmer ◽  
N Black ◽  
S Keay ◽  
S Quenby ◽  
B. H.A Wattar

Abstract Study question What is the effectiveness of IV Intralipid (IVI) in improving pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF with history of Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) to improve reproductive outcomes. Summary answer The evidence to support the use of IVI at the time of embryo transfer in women with RIF is limited. More RCTs are needed. What is known already: Optimising the implantation process following embryo transfer remains a clinical challenge with 10% of couples undergoing IVF affected by (RIF). Immunotherapy could help to optimise endometrial receptivity and increase the chances for successful conception in women with history of RIF. Intra-venous Intralipid (IVI), a fat-based emulsion of soybean oil, glycerine, phospholipids, egg, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, has been evaluated in several trials as a potential intervention to downregulate the uNK cells and macrophages as well as inhibit the pro-inflammatory mediators including T1 helper cells. Evidence synthesis is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Study design, size, duration We performed this systematic review using a prospectively registered protocol (CRD42019148517) and reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Participants/materials, setting, methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for any randomised trials evaluating the use of IVI at the time of embryo transfer in women undergoing assisted conception until September 2020. We extracted data in duplicate and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools. We meta-analysed data using a random effect model and reported on dichotomous outcomes using risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Main results and the role of chance We included five randomised trials reporting on 843 women with an overall moderate risk of bias. All trials used 20% IVI solution at the time of embryo transfer compared to normal saline infusion or no intervention (routine care). The IVI group had a higher chance of clinical pregnancy (172 vs 119, RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.16–2.07, I2 44.2%) and live birth (132 vs 73, RR 1.83, 95%CI 1.42–2.35, I2 0%) post treatment compared to no intervention. Limitations, reasons for caution Our findings are limited by the small sample size and the variations in treatment protocols and population characteristics. Wider implications of the findings: Our meta-analysis offers an overview on the value of IVI to help women affected by RIF. Given the limitations and the quality of included trials, adopting the use of IVI a-la-carte to couples undergoing IVF remains immature. IVI should not be offered until larger RCTs demonstrate a persistent benefit. Trial registration number CRD42019148517

Stroke ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 47 (suppl_1) ◽  
Mollie McDermott ◽  
Lesli E Skolarus ◽  
James F Burke

Introduction: Rates of tPA administration remain low nationally and globally despite its demonstrated efficacy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to increase the rate of tPA administration. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify all studies (excluding case reports) published between 1995 and January 8, 2015 documenting interventions to increase the utilization of tPA. We screened each study with pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Design elements and study data were extracted from eligible studies. The principal summary measure was the percentage change in rate of tPA administration. Fixed and random effects meta-analytic models were built to summarize the effect of intervention compared to control as well as intervention subtypes. Results: Our search yielded 1457 results of which 25 met eligibility criteria. We identified 13 pre-post studies and 11 randomized or quasi-experimental studies. Included studies utilized EMS (n=14), telemedicine (n=6), and public education (n=5). Intervention settings included urban (n=13), rural (n=4), and combined (n=4). In a fixed effect model, tPA administration was significantly higher in the intervention arm across all studies that limited enrollment to ischemic stroke patients (n=14) with a risk ratio (RR) of 1.71. Interventions involving EMS were associated with an increased rate of tPA administration with a RR of 1.51, (95% CI: 1.43-1.59, p<0.0001); promoting public education RR = 2.62, (95% CI: 1.54-4.43, p<0.01); and utilizing telemedicine RR = 2.97, (95% CI: 2.61-3.39, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Interventions to increase tPA use appear to have considerable efficacy. Comparative inferences between intervention types are limited by small sample size and intervention heterogeneity.

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