scholarly journals Microbial and metabolomic mechanisms mediating the effects of dietary inulin and cellulose supplementation on porcine oocyte and uterine development

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zhaoyue Men ◽  
Meng Cao ◽  
Yuechan Gong ◽  
Lun Hua ◽  
Ruihao Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Dietary fiber (DF) is often eschewed in swine diet due to its anti-nutritional effects, but DF is attracting growing attention for its reproductive benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DF intake level on oocyte maturation and uterine development, to determine the optimal DF intake for gilts, and gain microbial and metabolomic insight into the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods Seventy-six Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred replacement gilts of similar age (92.6 ± 0.6 d; mean ± standard deviation [SD]) and body weight (BW, 33.8 ± 3.9 kg; mean ± SD) were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatment groups (n = 19); a basal diet without extra DF intake (DF 1.0), and 3 dietary groups ingesting an extra 50% (DF 1.5), 75% (DF 1.75), and 100% (DF 2.0) dietary fiber mixture consisting of inulin and cellulose (1:4). Oocyte maturation and uterine development were assessed on 19 d of the 2nd oestrous cycle. Microbial diversity of faecal samples was analysed by high-throughput pyrosequencing (16S rRNA) and blood samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics. Results The rates of oocytes showing first polar bodies after in vitro maturation for 44 h and uterine development increased linearly with increasing DF intake; DF 1.75 gilts had a 19.8% faster oocyte maturation rate and a 48.9 cm longer uterus than DF 1.0 gilts (P <  0.05). Among the top 10 microbiota components at the phylum level, 8 increased linearly with increasing DF level, and the relative abundance of 30 of 53 microbiota components at the genus level (> 0.1%) increased linearly or quadratically with increasing DF intake. Untargeted metabolic analysis revealed significant changes in serum metabolites that were closely associated with microbiota, including serotonin, a gut-derived signal that stimulates oocyte maturation. Conclusions The findings provide evidence of the benefits of increased DF intake by supplementing inulin and cellulose on oocyte maturation and uterine development in gilts, and new microbial and metabolomic insight into the mechanisms mediating the effects of DF on reproductive performance of replacement gilts.

2018 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 3422 ◽  
Hyo-Jin Park ◽  
Soo-Yong Park ◽  
Jin-Woo Kim ◽  
Seul-Gi Yang ◽  
Min-Ji Kim ◽  

Bisphenol A (BPA) is synthetic organic compound that exhibits estrogen-like properties and it induces mitochondrial superoxide production. Melatonin (Mela) protects against BPA-mediated cell damage and apoptosis. However, the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-induced superoxide production in porcine oocytes are still not known. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-derived superoxide on oocyte maturation in pigs. To investigate the effects of the superoxide specific scavenger, Mito-TEMPO, on porcine oocyte maturation in response to BPA exposure apoptosis proteins, we treated the oocytes with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM) after pre-treating them with BPA (75 µM) for 22 h. As expected, the reduction in meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) in the BPA (75 µM) treated group was recovered (p < 0.01) by treatment with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM). An increase in the levels of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins (AIF, cleaved Cas 3 and cleaved Parp1) in response to BPA-induced damage was also reduced by Mito-TEMPO treatment in porcine COCs. Interestingly, we confirmed the positive effects of Mela with respect to superoxide production upon BPA exposure during oocyte maturation and also confirmed the reduction in mitochondrial apoptosis in Mela (0.1 µM)-treated porcine COCs. These results provide evidence for the first time that antioxidative effects of Mela on BPA-derived superoxide improve porcine oocyte maturation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
E Molinari ◽  
M Yang ◽  
J Hu ◽  
L Zhang ◽  
D F Albertini ◽  

Abstract Study question What causes our patient’s repeated almost complete oocyte maturation arrest (OMA)? Summary answer Since we did not detect PATL2 and TUBB8 mutations, both known to cause OMA, this case was likely caused by mutations in HUS1 and ITGB3 What is known already OMA has been associated with loss-of-function in key genes, such as PATL2 and TUBB8. Such patients have, however, uniformly have been unable to conceive with IVF Study design, size, duration We here report the case of repeatedly presenting patient between 2009 until 2020 (age 30 at 1st and 41 at last visit). Participants/materials, setting, methods The couple underwent 7 IVF treatments under several ovarian stimulation protocols at different gonadotropin dosages and in different preparations to try to recruit mature eggs. She conceived in her 2nd IVF cycle in 2009 and delivered uneventfully in 2010. She then conceived spontaneously and delivered a healthy boy in 2014. The couple since then has been attempting another pregnancy. Remarkably, in all IVF cycles all eggs but one arrested at prophase. Main results and the role of chance The female demonstrates abnormally high ovarian reserve for age (AMH=5.9 ng/mL in 2019) (mean, 10.6 oocytes). In all cycles, all but one retrieved were immature. In vitro maturation rate for the GV oocytes was 28%. Resultant M2s, however, demonstrated morphological abnormalities, such as giant polar bodies. In vivo M2s, in contrast, were always morphologically unremarkable, and their fertilization rate was 85%. Embryo morphology deteriorated appreciatively with advancing age. Sanger sequencing for TUBB8 and PATL2 genes were unremarkable. Whole genome sequencing of her and her sister (who had no fertility problems) revealed mutations of genes belonging to the integrin family (ITGB3) and DNA repair checkpoint (HUS1), both of which could be determinants in the observed maturation arrest. Limitations, reasons for caution A functional study, coupled with imaging of the discarded material, will likely offer further information regarding the mechanisms leading to OMA in this female. Wider implications of the findings: This case report represents a new phenotype of female infertility, characterized by almost complete maturation arrest which, however, still offers opportunity for pregnancy. Further isolation of underlying mutation(s) may offer additional insights about checkpoints required for the transition of prophase to metaphase in human oocytes. Trial registration number NA

2019 ◽  
Vol 97 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. 141-142
Jerad R Jaborek ◽  
Alejandro E Relling

Abstract The presence of reactive oxygen species has been associated with the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into lipid filled mature adipocytes in vitro. We hypothesized offering a diet without supplemental antioxidant minerals (Cu, Mg, Zn, and Se) to steers during the growing phase, a time when intramuscular fat cells are believed to be proliferating, would promote differentiation of pre-adipocytes, leading to more desirable marbling scores compared with steers supplemented to meet their mineral requirements. After adaptation to the feedlot, 168 Sim-Angus steers were divided into four weight blocks, placed in one of twenty-four pens, and randomly assigned a dietary treatment. Dietary treatments were: 1) no supplemental (Cu, Mg, Zn, and Se) minerals; 2) control diet with supplemented minerals to meet the mineral requirements of growing beef steers (NRC, 2016); 3) Cu, Mg, Zn, and Se concentrations supplemented at twice the concentration of the control diet. After dietary treatments were applied for the 4-wk long growing phase, steers were offered a common finishing diet until reaching a similar backfat thickness until harvest. Feedlot performance and carcass data were analyzed in SAS with pen as the experimental unit in the following model: Yij = μ+Di+wj+eij, where Di was the fixed effect of diet, wj was the random effect of weight block, and eij was the random error. No significant (P > 0.35) treatment effects were found for feedlot performance and carcass measurements. The feedstuffs in the basal diet may have contained sufficient concentrations of antioxidant minerals to meet the mineral requirements of the steers and mask differences in marbling. Additionally, offering a similar diet during the finishing period may have resulted in compensatory marbling growth, which offset marbling differences after the growing phase and resulted in uniform marbling accumulation across dietary treatments.

2015 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 219 ◽  
F. García ◽  
Y. Ducolomb ◽  
S. P. Miranda-Castro ◽  
J. F. De la Torre-Sánchez ◽  
S. Romo

Chitosan is a partially deacetylated polymer obtained from the alkaline deacetylation of chitin, which is a glucose-based unbranched polysaccharide widely distributed in nature as the main component of exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects. Chitosan has a variety of physicochemical and biological properties resulting in numerous applications. In addition to its lack of toxicity and allergenicity, its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity make it a very attractive substance for diverse applications as a biomaterial in pharmaceutical and medical fields. Chitosan stimulates cell growth and it has been used in fibroblast culture, increasing cell proliferation. For these reasons, it is important to evaluate if this polymer has a positive effect on embryo production. The aim of this study was to evaluate porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development, comparing the effect of supplementing different concentrations of chitosan to the maturation (MM) and development media (DM). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were aspirated from ovarian follicles of slaughtered sows. The COC were matured in supplemented TCM-199 (MM) and incubated for 44 h. All incubations were performed at 38.5°C, with 5% CO2 in air and humidity at saturation. After maturation IVF was performed, frozen-thawed semen from the same boar was used and gametes were co-incubated in MTBM for 7 h. Then, putative zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 (DM) for 144 h. The following experiments were performed: 1) addition of 0 (control), 35, 50, 100, and 150 ppm chitosan to the MM (n = 1353), 2) addition of 0, 50, 100, and 150 ppm chitosan to the DM (n = 739), 3) addition of 0, 50, 100, and 150 ppm of chitosan to the MM first and then the same concentrations to the DM (n = 702). When chitosan was added to the MM, the highest percentage of matured oocytes (metaphase II) was obtained in the 50 ppm treatment (87%, P < 0.05) when compared with the control, 100, and 150 ppm groups (78, 78, and 82%, respectively). Regarding the percentage of blastocysts, there were no differences when comparing the treatment and the control groups (ranging from 12 to 13%). After addition of chitosan to the putative zygotes in the DM, the percentage of morulae in the 150 ppm treatment was significantly increased with regard to the other groups (54 v. 46%, respectively, P < 0.05). When adding chitosan to both MM and DM, there was no effect on embryo development. It is concluded that the addition of chitosan to the MM at a concentration of 50 ppm significantly improved oocyte maturation and a concentration of 150 ppm in the DM increased the percentage of morulae. Chitosan had a positive effect on oocyte maturation and embryo development. These results justify further investigations to find out if chitosan can be useful as a supplement for chemically defined media.

2017 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 195 ◽  
J.-Y. Park ◽  
H.-J. Park ◽  
J.-W. Kim ◽  
S.-Y. Park ◽  
S.-G. Yang ◽  

Unfolding protein response (UPR) is a defence mechanism during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells. Especially, UPR genes and regulation of reactive oxygen species is involved in ER stress response on porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Some studies have shown that melatonin treatment results in reducing oxidative stress, a protective function of free radical damage in oocyte maturation and embryo development. Also, melatonin has an important role in reducing reactive oxygen species and ER stress. However, it is unknown how the changes of UPR genes expression levels are affected the porcine oocyte maturation. In addition, there are no reports about ER stress recovery mechanism by melatonin during porcine oocyte maturation. Here, we investigated the UPR signal genes (Bip/Grp78, Atf4, p90/p50Atf6, and Xbp1) and ER-stress mediated apoptosis factors (Chop and Cleaved caspase 3) in porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Expression of Chop and Cleaved caspase 3 mRNA levels were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in matured oocytes (metaphase II; 44 h) in vitro. Porcine oocytes were cultured in maturation medium with ER stress inducer, tunicamycin (Tm), and supplemented with various concentrations (1, 5, and 10 μg mL−1) of Tm for 0 to 44 h. Our results indicated that the proportion of matured oocytes was significantly decreased in Tm-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner (60.1 ± 1.3, 46.5 ± 2.1, and 38.9 ± 5.1% at 1, 5, and 10 μg mL−1 of Tm) compared with the control group (76.6 ± 1.9%). Likewise, mRNA expression of UPR regulator genes (Grp78/Bip, Aft4, Xbp1, Chop, and Cleaved caspase 3) was decreased by melatonin treatment (0.1 μM, 22–44 h) after pretreatment of Tm (5 μg mL−1, 0–22 h) during oocyte maturation. Our results demonstrated that the roles of melatonin as UPR signaling regulator for reducing ER stress are essential for promotion of porcine oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion of cumulus-oocyte complex. Moreover, the current study was initiated to confirm a functional link between effect of melatonin and regulating of UPR signaling in porcine oocytes maturation. These results suggest that melatonin improve the oocyte maturation and cumulus cells expansion by regulating of UPR signal genes against the ER stress during the porcine in vitro maturation process. This work was supported by grants from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (PJ01117604) and the Bio-industry Technology Development Program (316037–04–1-HD020) through the Rural Development Administration, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (9) ◽  
pp. 3050 ◽  
Hyo-Jin Park ◽  
Bong-Seok Song ◽  
Jin-Woo Kim ◽  
Seul-Gi Yang ◽  
Sun-Uk Kim ◽  

While triclosan (TCS) exerts detrimental effects on female reproduction, the effect of TCS-derived toxins on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) is unclear. This study investigated the effects of TCS on mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis pathways during porcine oocyte maturation. Porcine oocytes were treated with TCS (1, 10, and 100 μM) and triphenylphosphonium chloride (Mito-TEMPO; 0.1 μM), and matured cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were stained with orcein, dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), and Mito-SOX. Proteins and mRNA levels of factors related to cumulus expansion and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by western blotting and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion significantly decreased for COCs after TCS treatment along with an increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels at 44 h of IVM. Further, mitochondrion-related antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis markers were significantly elevated in porcine COCs following TCS-mediated oxidative damage. The protective effect of Mito-TEMPO as a specific superoxide scavenger from TCS toxin improved the maturation capacity of porcine COCs. Mito-TEMPO downregulated the mitochondrial apoptosis of TCS-exposed porcine COCs by reducing superoxide level. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TCS mediates toxicity during porcine oocyte maturation through superoxide production and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis.

2011 ◽  
Vol 49 (No. 3) ◽  
pp. 93-98 ◽  
I. Petrová ◽  
M. Sedmíková ◽  
E. Chmelíková ◽  
D. Švestková ◽  
R. Rajmon

Porcine oocytes matured in vitro develop in various ways if they are further cultivated. In our studies these oocytes were cultivated for 1 to 5 days (in vitro aging). During the 1st day of aging, most of them remained at the stage of metaphase II (98%). Then many oocytes underwent the spontaneous parthenogenetic activation. The portion of activated oocytes reached its peak after 2 or 3 days of aging in vitro (39 or 45%). The portion of fragmented oocytes peaked at the same time (28%). During subsequent aging in vitro (i.e. day 4 or 5 of aging), the portion of lysed oocytes significantly increased (30 or 37%). The highest portion of spontaneously activated parthenogenetic embryos at a pronuclear stage (35%) was observed during the 2nd day of aging in vitro. These pronuclear embryos had mainly one polar body with two pronuclei (47% of all pronuclear embryos) or two polar bodies with one pronucleus (38% of all pronuclear embryos). During the 3rd and 5th day of in vitro aging, there was a significant increase in the portion of parthenogenetic embryos cleaved to the 2-cell or 3-cell stage. When considering the prolonged in vitro culture of porcine oocyte, only the first day of aging should be taken into account, since beyond this time significant changes, i.e. parthenogenesis, fragmentation or lysis, occurred in oocytes under in vitro conditions. &nbsp;

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
pp. 3692 ◽  
Pil-Soo Jeong ◽  
Sanghoon Lee ◽  
Soo-Hyun Park ◽  
Min Ju Kim ◽  
Hyo-Gu Kang ◽  

Parabens are widely used in personal care products due to their antimicrobial effects. Although the toxicity of parabens has been reported, little information is available on the toxicity of butylparaben (BP) on oocyte maturation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of BP (0 μM, 100 μM, 200 μM, 300 μM, 400 μM, and 500 μM) on the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes. BP supplementation at a concentration greater than 300 μM significantly reduced the proportion of complete cumulus cell expansion and metaphase II oocytes compared to the control. The 300 μM BP significantly decreased fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst formation rates with lower total cell numbers and a higher rate of apoptosis in blastocysts compared to the control. The BP-treated oocytes showed significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and lower glutathione (GSH) levels than the control. BP significantly increased the aberrant mitochondrial distribution and decreased mitochondrial function compared to the control. BP-treated oocytes exhibited significantly higher percentage of γ-H2AX, annexin V-positive oocytes and expression of LC3 than the control. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BP impaired oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development, by inducing ROS generation and reducing GSH levels. Furthermore, BP disrupted mitochondrial function and triggered DNA damage, early apoptosis, and autophagy in oocytes.

Zygote ◽  
2002 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 355-366 ◽  
Kazuhiro Kikuchi ◽  
Hans Ekwall ◽  
Paisan Tienthai ◽  
Yasuhiro Kawai ◽  
Junko Noguchi ◽  

Lipid content in mammalian oocytes or embryos differs among species, with bovine and porcine oocytes and embryos showing large cytoplasmic droplets. These droplets are considered to play important roles in energy metabolism during oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development, and also in the freezing ability of oocytes or embryos; however, their detailed distribution or function is not well understood. In the present study, changes in the distribution and morphology of porcine lipid droplets during in vivo and in vitro fertilisation, in contrast to parthenogenetic oocyte activation, as well as during their development to blastocyst stage, were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis of semi-thin and ultra-thin sections by TEM showed conspicuous, large, electron-dense lipid droplets, sometimes associated with mitochondrial aggregates in the oocytes, irrespective of whether the oocytes had been matured in vivo or in vitro. Immediately after sperm penetration, the electron density of the lipid droplets was lost in both the in vivo and in vitro oocytes, the reduction being most evident in the oocytes developed in vitro. Density was restored in the pronculear oocytes, fully in the in vivo specimens but only partially in the in vitro ones. The number and size of the droplets seemed, however, to have decreased. At 2- to 4-cell and blastocyst stages, the features of the lipid droplets were almost the same as those of pronuclear oocytes, showing a homogeneous or saturated density in the in vivo embryos but a marbled or partially saturated appearance in the in vitro embryos. In vitro matured oocytes undergoing parthenogenesis had lipid droplets that resembled those of fertilised oocytes until the pronuclear stage. Overall, results indicate variations in both the morphology and amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets during porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development as well as differences between in vivo and in vitro development, suggesting both different energy status during preimplantation development in pigs and substantial differences between in vitro and in vivo development.

Zygote ◽  
2006 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 189-199 ◽  
Inger Faerge ◽  
Frantisek Strejcek ◽  
Jozef Laurincik ◽  
Detlef Rath ◽  
Heiner Niemann ◽  

SummaryFollicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturation is improved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcine oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/l cysteine, 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 50 μM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 μM, 3 μM, 10 μM, 30 μM or 100 μM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded mechanically using a fine glass pipette under constant pH and in vitro fertilized with fresh semen (5 × 105 spermatozoa/ml). The presumptive zygotes were evaluated 18 h after fertilization. The addition of pFF increased the monospermic as well as the polyspermic penetration of oocytes. In the absence of pFF, the addition of FF-MAS decreased the polyspermic penetration rate, whereas FF-MAS in combination with pFF decreased monospermic and increased polyspermic penetration. The degeneration rate of ova decreased in the presence of FF-MAS irrespective of the presence or absence of pFF. In the absence of pFF, FF-MAS at 3–10 μM increased the number of zygotes with advanced maternal pronuclear stages. In supraphysiological doses, i.e. 30–100 μM, FF-MAS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited nuclear maturation in the absence of pFF.

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