ABH antigens are histo-antigens, but were first described on the surface of human erythrocytes. They are found in those cells only in great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues that are in contact with the external environment and may serve as ligands for pathogens in tissues or block their connection. Description of the distribution of these molecules in non-human primate tissues is restricted to a few tissues and species. This paper describes the expression of human A, B and H type antigens in different organs from four species of New World Primates, obtained from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, as well as comparing that expression with what has been described for humans. In this study, although the tissue description of the antigens is similar to the genetic model for humans, some differences in expression between some organs from those species and those of humans were found. The differences occurred mainly in endodermal organs that have secretory functions and are probably under the control of the human-type FUT-2 enzyme. In the mesodermal-origin organs there was a reduction or absence of A and B antigen marking, particularly in the H precursor substance, indicating that those organs are under the control of the human-type FUT-1 enzyme. These findings have demonstrated that there is similar ABH antigen reactivity in tissue distribution between the species, although there are some species-specific cases.
Oxytocin is widely believed to be present and structurally identical in all placental mammals. Here, we report that multiple species of New World monkeys possess a novel form of oxytocin, [P8] oxytocin. This mutation arises from a substitution of a leucine to a proline in amino acid position 8. Further analysis of this mutation in
(squirrel monkey) indicates that [P8] oxytocin is transcribed and translated properly. This mutation is specific to oxytocin, as the peptide sequence for arginine vasopressin, a structurally related nonapeptide, is unaltered. These findings dispel the notion that all placental mammals possess a ‘universal’ oxytocin sequence, and highlight the need for research on the functional significance of this novel nonapeptide in New World monkeys.
Infection with Actinobacillus equuli occurred in a squirrel monkey ( Saimiri sciureus) and a spider monkey ( Ateles paniscus). The disease in monkeys, characterized by widespread bacterial embolism and embolic suppurative nephritis, was similar to the disease caused by A. equuli in foals.