scholarly journals Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry and its environment in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

2021 ◽  
pp. 3216-3223
Thuan K. Nguyen ◽  
Lam T. Nguyen ◽  
Trang T. H. Chau ◽  
Tam T. Nguyen ◽  
Bich N. Tran ◽  

Background and Aim: Salmonella is one of the leading causes of zoonotic and foodborne infectious outbreaks in humans and poultry and its associated environment is a potential reservoir of Salmonella. In recent years, the antibiotic resistance of bacteria, including Salmonella, has been increasing. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry, its environment, and the pest animals found at poultry farms and households of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,055 samples were collected from the broiler farms and households of the Mekong Delta from 2017 to 2020. Salmonella was isolated using conventional methods (culturing on selective agar – BPLS and biochemical test) and the isolates were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results: Salmonella was isolated from 181 samples (5.92%), which included chicken feces (7.67%), pest animals (5.98%), and environmental samples (4.33%). The environmental samples comprised bedding (5.88%), feed (5.48%), and drinking water (0.70%). The prevalence of Salmonella was the highest in rats (15.63%) and geckos (12.25%) followed by ants (2.83%) and cockroaches (2.44%); however, Salmonella was not isolated from any fly species. Most of the isolates exhibited resistance to 1-9 antibiotics. The isolates were relatively resistant to chloramphenicol (62.98%), tetracycline (55.80%), ampicillin (54.14%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (53.04%). Sixty-two multiple resistance patterns were found in the isolates, with ampicillin-cefuroxime-chloramphenicol-tetracycline- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim being the most frequent (7.18%). Conclusion: The chickens, husbandry environment, and pest animals at poultry farms and households were found to be important Salmonella sources in the Mekong Delta. Salmonella isolates from these sources also exhibited a wide-ranging resistance to antibiotics as well as several resistance patterns. Hence, biosecurity should be addressed in poultry farms and households to prevent cross-contamination and reduce the spread of Salmonella infections.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 447
Barbara Kot ◽  
Agata Grużewska ◽  
Piotr Szweda ◽  
Jolanta Wicha ◽  
Urszula Parulska

The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and the prevalence of uropathogenes causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients hospitalized in January–June 2020 in central Poland. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk-diffusion method. Escherichia coli (52.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.3%), E. faecium (6.2%), and Proteus mirabilis (4,3%) were most commonly isolated from urine samples. E. coli was significantly more frequent in women (58.6%) (p = 0.0089) and in the age group 0–18, while K. pneumoniae was more frequent in men (24.4%) (p = 0.0119) and in individuals aged 40–60 and >60. Gram-negative species showed resistance to ampicillin. K. pneumoniae were resistant to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (75.0%), piperacillin plus tazobactam (76.2%), cefotaxime (76.2%), cefuroxime (81.0%), ciprofloxacin (81.0%), and trimethoprim plus sulphamethoxazole (81.0%). Carbapenems were effective against all E. coli and P. mirabilis. Some K. pneumoniae (13.6%) produced metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). E. coli (22.6%), K. pneumoniae (81.8%), and all E. faecium were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Some E. coli (26.2%), K. pneumoniae (63.6%), and P. mirabilis (14.3%) isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium was also found. This study showed that the possibilities of UTIs therapy using available antibiotics become limited due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens.

Animals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 396 ◽  
Michaela Sannettha van den Honert ◽  
Pieter Andries Gouws ◽  
Louwrens Christiaan Hoffman

Studies have shown that antibiotic resistance among wild animals is becoming a public health concern, owing to increased contact and co-habitation with domestic animals that, in turn, results in increased human contact, indirectly and directly. This type of farming practice intensifies the likelihood of antibiotic resistant traits in microorganisms transferring between ecosystems which are linked via various transfer vectors, such as rivers and birds. This study aimed to determine whether the practice of wildlife supplementary feeding could have an influence on the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria harboured by the supplementary fed wildlife, and thus play a potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance throughout nature. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were isolated from the faeces of various wildlife species from seven different farms across South Africa. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2018 guidelines. The E. coli (F: 57%; N = 75% susceptible) and Enterococcus (F: 67%; N = 78% susceptible) isolates from the supplementary fed (F) wildlife were in general, found to be more frequently resistant to the selection of antibiotics than from those which were not supplementary fed (N), particularly towards tetracycline (E. coli F: 56%; N: 71%/Enterococcus F: 53%; N: 89% susceptible), ampicillin (F: 82%; N = 95% susceptible) and sulphafurazole (F: 68%; N = 98% susceptible). Interestingly, high resistance towards streptomycin was observed in the bacteria from both the supplementary fed (7% susceptible) and non-supplementary fed (6% susceptible) wildlife isolates. No resistance was found towards chloramphenicol and ceftazidime.

2017 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 106-110 ◽  
Farzaneh Firoozeh ◽  
Ehsan Dadgostar ◽  
Hussein Akbari ◽  
Mohammad Zibaei ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Sadjjad Sadjjadian ◽  

Background: Paper banknotes would be a vector for transmission of pathogenic microorganisms through handling. Objective: This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination of Iranian paper currencies in circulation and their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: In this study, 337 currency notes of different value were collected from markets, shops, restaurants, bus stations and banks in Kashan, Iran during April 2015 to March 2016. The currency notes transferred to microbiology laboratory and were tested for bacterial contamination using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria were determined by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. The results and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 337 currency notes, 262 (77.7%) were identified with bacterial contamination. Bacteria isolated from currency notes were as follows: Bacillus spp 113 (43.1%), coagulase-negative staphylococci 99 (37.7%), Escherichia coli 20 (7.6%), Enterococci species 14 (5.3%), Staphylococcus aureus 8 (3.1%), Klebsiella spp 4 (1.5%), Shigella species 2 (0.8%), and Pseudomonas species 2 (0.8%). The most and least contaminated currency notes were 50000 and 500 Rials, respectively. The highest resistance rates in gram-negative rods were against nalidixic acid, and ampicillin. However, the highest resistance rates in S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococci species were against ampicillin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the bacterial contamination among Iranian paper currency in circulation especially those obtained from certain sources including shops and bus stations is high and in most cases these bacterial isolates are antibiotic-resistant strains.

2019 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 61-66
Sunjukta Ahsan ◽  
Mayen Uddin ◽  
Juthika Mandal ◽  
Marufa Zerin Akhter

Antibiotic resistant E. coli are prevalent in Bangladesh. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and ready availability of over the counter drugs are responsible for this. This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of clinical Escherichia coli to the antibiotics Imipenem, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime and Azithromycin. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine sensitivity to antimicrobials. Agar based assay was employed for the detection of efflux pumps. PCR was used amplify antibiotic resistance genes.All isolates were resistant to Ceftriaxone whereas most were sensitive to Imipenem. The MICs of Ceftazidime and Azithromycin ranged between 128 μg/ml and 256 μg/ml. The prevalence of ²-lactamase producers was 57.89 % with 36.84 % of the isolates exhibiting ESBL activity. No specific correlation could be found between plasmid sizes and antibiotic resistance patterns. Efflux pump was found to be involved in Azithromycin resistance in 63.15% of the isolates. The gene for phosphotransferase, mph(A) was the most common among the macrolide modifying genes, being present in 73.68% (14/19) of the isolates followed by both erm(A) anderm(C) esterases each present in 10.53% (2/19) isolates. This study concluded that clinical isolates of E. coli in Bangladesh could be resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics through different mechanisms of resistance. Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 34 Number 2 December 2017, pp 61-66

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Frederick Adzitey ◽  
Prince Assoah-Peprah ◽  
Gabriel A. Teye ◽  
Anou M. Somboro ◽  
Hezekiel M. Kumalo ◽  

Meats are important potential sources of foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from meats in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana. Isolation of Escherichia coli was done using the procedure according to the USA-FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Antibiotic resistance patterns in the Escherichia coli isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against 8 antibiotics. The overall prevalence of Escherichia coli in the meat samples was 84.00% (189/225). Mutton (88.89%), guinea fowl (88.89%), beef (86.67%), local chicken (80.00%), and chevon (75.56%) were contaminated by Escherichia coli. The average coliform count was 4.22 cfu/cm2 and was highest in guinea fowl (4.94 log cfu/cm2) and lowest in local chicken (3.23 log cfu/cm2). The Escherichia coli isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (85.00%), tetracycline (73.33%), and ampicillin (71.67%). The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranged from 0.13 to 1. The Escherichia coli isolates exhibited 23 antimicrobial resistance patterns with resistant pattern TeAmpE (tetracycline-ampicillin-erythromycin) being the most common. Multidrug resistance was 68.33% (41/60) among the Escherichia coli isolates. The results showed that Escherichia coli was commonly present in the various meat types and exhibited multidrug resistances, necessitating efficient antibiotic stewardship guidelines to streamline their use in the production industry.

2020 ◽  
Javad rasouli ◽  
Behnam hashemi ◽  
Hamed Afkhami ◽  
Mansoor Khaledi ◽  
Reza valadan ◽  

Abstract Objectives Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of Hospital infection especially in burn victims. The current study aimed to determine antibiotic resistance of the efflux Pumps MexAB-Opr M. In the present study, 115 samples of urine, blood, sputum, and ICU were collected from the reconstructive section of the patients. The drug susceptibility patterns were determined by disk diffusion method. Phenotypic activity of the efflux pump from the E-test was evaluated, in the presence and without the presence of efflux pump inhibitor. The MexAB gene was analyzed by PCR reaction. Results The resistant isolated was shown to be Ciprofloxacin 33.91%, Nurfloxacin 38.26%, Gentamicin 71.7%, Nalidixic acid 95.95%, Ceftazidim 38.46%, Emipenem 24.34%, Meropenem 26.36%, and Cefotaxim 40.86%. The highest and lowest resistance rates were Co-trimoxazole and Piperacilin, respectively. The findings of PCR reaction among 115 P. aeruginosa isolates indicated that 62.62% was MexAB gene. The results of MIC with E-test revealed that the role of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance was 19 isolated. Due to the importance of antibiotic resistance to investigate other efflux pumps, comparison of efflux pump involvement in antibiotic resistance, and relationship between efflux pumps MexAB-Opr M are highly required and suggested.


Objective: This study was aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to detect the presence of PstS gene. Methods: One hundred and ninety-two clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rDNA sequencing. Antibiotic resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of selected antibiotics against resistant isolates were determined by macro broth dilution and E-test strip methods. The resistant isolates were screened for the presence of PstS gene using PCR. Results: Of 192 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, 136 (70.83%) were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Of these, 135 (99%) could be classified as multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDR-PA), 63 (46%) were extensively drug-resistant (XDR-PA), while 38 (28%) were pandrug-resistant (PDR-PA). The isolates exhibited high level of resistance to cefotaxime and ticarcillin, and low levels of resistance to meropenem and imipenem. The MIC values for meropenem against the resistant isolates were generally <32 mg/L, while the values for other antibiotics ranged from 32 to >128 mg/L. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of the MDR-PA ranged from 0.27 to 0.91 and the most prevalent pattern of resistance was PiperacillinR – TicarcillinR – Piperacillin/TazobactamR – CefotaximeR – CeftazidimeR – GentamicnR – TobramycinR– CiprofloxacinR. About 50% of the resistant isolates possessed the PstS gene. Conclusions: The results confirmed the presence of XDR, PDRPA, and PstS gene in P. aeruginosa strains. There is an urgent need for healthcare practitioners to address the problem of multidrug resistance, by implementing a more rational and appropriate use of antibiotics.

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 101-106
Hosein Akhlaghi ◽  
Seyed Hesamodin Emadi Chashmi ◽  
Ashkan Jebelli Javan

Background: Helicobacter pullorum predominantly colonizes the gut of apparently healthy chickens and the livers and intestinal contents of hens with enteritis and vibrionic hepatitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens, laying hens, and turkeys in Semnan province. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 samples were collected from 60 poultry farms in Semnan province, including 240 cecal samples from 48 broiler farms, 30 fecal samples from 6 laying hen farms, and 30 cecal samples from 6 turkey farms. Each sample was analyzed by conventional culture method and biochemical tests. The suspected colonies were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16S rRNA gene. Antibiotic resistance of the confirmed colonies was determined using disk diffusion method. Results: Of 300 samples, 85 (28.3%) samples obtained from 36 (60%) poultry farms were positive for H. pullorum. Of these samples, 72 (30%) were from 30 (62.5%) broiler farms, 4 (13.3%) were from 2 (33.3%) laying hen farms, and 9 (30%) were from 4 (66.7%) turkey farms. Moreover, resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in all of the H. pullorum isolates. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the moderate prevalence of H. pullorum in poultry in Semnan province for the first time, while the prevalence of this pathogen in laying hen and turkey has not been determined in Iran. In addition, this study could reveal the antibiotic resistance profile of H. pullorum as the first report in Iran. Therefore, more studies are needed to focus on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of H. pullorum in poultry in other regions of Iran.

Reza RANJBAR ◽  
Mohammad HEIAT

Background: Salmonella enteritidis causes infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are used to eliminate bacterial infections, which become resistant to antibiotics after a while. This study aimed to isolate S. enteritidis from cattle feces samples and also to evaluate the frequency of genes associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR). Methods: One hundred ten fecal samples of cattle were collected from Jul to Dec, 2017 in Khuzestan Province, southern Iran. Bacterial culture and molecular methods were used to isolate and identify S. enteritidis. Disk diffusion method was used to assess antibiotic susceptibility. Then Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), assay was used for definitive diagnosis of S. enteritidis and resistance genes. Results: Overall, 101 (91.81%) samples were detected to be contaminated with Salmonella genus and 86 samples (85.14%) were identified as S. enteritidis. The highest and lowest antibiotic resistance were belonged to gentamicin (n=70, 81.39%), and tetracycline (n=6, 6.97%). Besides, 64 samples (74.42%) had 2-10 drugs resistance patterns. Moreover, the highest and the least resistance were related to blaIMP-1 (n=73, 84.88%) and tet(B) (n=49, 56.97%) genes respectively. Conclusion: The drug-induced genes in S. enteritidis have a high frequency. Therefore, antibiotic resistance and high MDR to antibiotics can be due to the incorrect use of antibiotics and the lack of health monitoring in Cattle farms.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 930
Delia Gambino ◽  
Sonia Sciortino ◽  
Sergio Migliore ◽  
Lucia Galuppo ◽  
Roberto Puleio ◽  

The presence of Salmonella spp. in marine animals is a consequence of contamination from terrestrial sources (human activities and animals). Bacteria present in marine environments, including Salmonella spp., can be antibiotic resistant or harbor resistance genes. In this study, Salmonella spp. detection was performed on 176 marine animals stranded in the Sicilian coasts (south Italy). Antibiotic susceptibility, by disk diffusion method and MIC determination, and antibiotic resistance genes, by molecular methods (PCR) of the Salmonella spp. strains, were evaluated. We isolated Salmonella spp. in three animals, though no pathological signs were detected. Our results showed a low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (1.7%) and a low incidence of phenotypic resistance in three Salmonella spp. strains isolated. Indeed, of the three strains, only Salmonella subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from S. coeruleoalba and M. mobular showed phenotypic resistance: the first to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulphamethoxazole, while the latter only to sulphamethoxazole. However, all strains harbored resistance genes (blaTEM, blaOXA, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), sulI, and sulII). Although the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. found in this study does not represent a relevant health issue, our data contribute to the collection of information on the spread of ARGs, elements involved in antibiotic resistance, now considered a zoonosis in a One Health approach.

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