Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry and its environment in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Background and Aim: Salmonella is one of the leading causes of zoonotic and foodborne infectious outbreaks in humans and poultry and its associated environment is a potential reservoir of Salmonella. In recent years, the antibiotic resistance of bacteria, including Salmonella, has been increasing. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry, its environment, and the pest animals found at poultry farms and households of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,055 samples were collected from the broiler farms and households of the Mekong Delta from 2017 to 2020. Salmonella was isolated using conventional methods (culturing on selective agar – BPLS and biochemical test) and the isolates were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results: Salmonella was isolated from 181 samples (5.92%), which included chicken feces (7.67%), pest animals (5.98%), and environmental samples (4.33%). The environmental samples comprised bedding (5.88%), feed (5.48%), and drinking water (0.70%). The prevalence of Salmonella was the highest in rats (15.63%) and geckos (12.25%) followed by ants (2.83%) and cockroaches (2.44%); however, Salmonella was not isolated from any fly species. Most of the isolates exhibited resistance to 1-9 antibiotics. The isolates were relatively resistant to chloramphenicol (62.98%), tetracycline (55.80%), ampicillin (54.14%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (53.04%). Sixty-two multiple resistance patterns were found in the isolates, with ampicillin-cefuroxime-chloramphenicol-tetracycline- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim being the most frequent (7.18%). Conclusion: The chickens, husbandry environment, and pest animals at poultry farms and households were found to be important Salmonella sources in the Mekong Delta. Salmonella isolates from these sources also exhibited a wide-ranging resistance to antibiotics as well as several resistance patterns. Hence, biosecurity should be addressed in poultry farms and households to prevent cross-contamination and reduce the spread of Salmonella infections.