High Resolution Resists for Next Generation Lithography: The Nanocomposite Approach

2000 ◽  
Vol 636 ◽  
Kenneth E. Gonsalves ◽  
Hengpeng Wu ◽  
Yongqi Hu ◽  
Lhadi Merhari

AbstractThe SIA roadmap predicts mass production of sub-100 nm resolution circuits by 2006. This not only imposes major constraints on next generation lithographic tools but also requires that new resists capable of accommodating such a high resolution be synthesized and developed concurrently. Except for ion beam lithography, DUV, X-ray, and in particular electron beam lithography suffer significantly from proximity effects, leading to severe degradation of resolution in classical resists. We report a new class of resists based on organic/inorganic nanocomposites having a structure that reduces the proximity effects. Synthetic routes are described for a ZEP520®nano-SiO2 resist where 47nm wide lines have been written with a 40 nm diameter, 20 keV electron beam at no sensitivity cost. Other resist systems based on polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane copolymerized with MMA, TBMA, MMA and a proprietary PAG are also presented. These nanocomposite resists suitable for DUV and electron beam lithography show enhancement in both contrast and RIE resistance in oxygen. Tentative mechanisms responsible for proximity effect reduction are also discussed.

1992 ◽  
Vol 17 (1-4) ◽  
pp. 563-566 ◽  
R.G. Woodham ◽  
R.M. Jones ◽  
D.G. Hasko ◽  
J.R.A. Cleaver ◽  
H. Ahmed

T. H. Newman ◽  
R. F. W. Pease ◽  
K. J. Polasko ◽  
Y. W. Yau

Two prominent problems of electron beam lithography are slow throughput and proximity effects. The former arises from the serial nature of the exposure process; the current available in a beam of given resolution is limited by electron optical considerations and the resist sensitivity is limited by material considerations such that a dose of 1 μC/cm2 at 20 kV is required for the most sensitive resist and ten times that dose if high resolution is required.Proximity effects are caused by electrons scattered through lateral distances greater than the resolution of the pattern; a 20 keV electron in silicon has a range of about 3 μm whereas feature sizes are often less than 1 μm. Lowering the energy of the exposing electrons to, say, 2 keV would lower the electron range to less than 0.1 μm in silicon and thus effectively eliminate proximity effects as far as semiconductor circuit fabrication is concerned.

1998 ◽  
Vol 41-42 ◽  
pp. 237-240 ◽  
W.H. Bruenger ◽  
H. Buschbeck ◽  
E. Cekan ◽  
S. Eder ◽  
T.H. Fedynyshyn ◽  

1992 ◽  
Vol 279 ◽  
R. L. Kubena

ABSTRACTWe have recently demonstrated the ability to focus a 50-keV Ga+ beam to an 8-nm-diameter spot diameter. This ultra-high resolution probe has been used to study the resolution limits of conventional resists for focused-ion-beam lithography. Lines and dots in poly (methylmethacrylate) resist as small as 7–8 nm have been formed with high throughput. In addition, no proximity effects have been observed for 25 to 30-nm size features on high-z substrates. However, for the smallest geometries obtainable, the pattern fidelity and resolution are most likely limited by ion scattering effects and statistical dose fluctuations. The use of lighter ions (such as He, Li, or Be) with lower sensitivity resists should, in principle, allow focused-ion-beam lithography to be extended to the sub-5 nm regime.

2020 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 157-169
Yusheng Pan ◽  
Ke Xu

Electron beam lithography (EBL) and ion beam lithography (IBL) are extremely promising nanofabrication techniques for building nano-electronic devices due to their outstanding physical and electronic properties. In this review, an overview of EBL and IBL and a comparison of nanoelectronics fabricated based on four types of materials, namely graphene, ZnO, TiO2 and Ge, are presented. In each type of material, numerous practical examples are also provided in the illustration. Later, the strengths and weaknesses of EBL and IBL are presented in details. Finally, the similarities and differences between the two techniques are discussed and concluded.

2015 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-19 ◽  
G. Grenci ◽  
E. Zanchetta ◽  
A. Pozzato ◽  
G. Della Giustina ◽  
G. Brusatin ◽  

2006 ◽  
Vol 983 ◽  
Todd Simpson ◽  
Ian V Mitchell

AbstractAperture arrays were fabricated in 1.0µm thick gold films supported on 20nm thick silicon nitride membranes. Lithographic milling strategies in gold were evaluated through the use of in-situ sectioning and high resolution SEM imaging with the UWO CrossBeam FIB/SEM. A successful strategy for producing a 250nm diameter hole with sidewalls approaching vertical is summarized.

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