High Resolution Resists for Next Generation Lithography: The Nanocomposite Approach
AbstractThe SIA roadmap predicts mass production of sub-100 nm resolution circuits by 2006. This not only imposes major constraints on next generation lithographic tools but also requires that new resists capable of accommodating such a high resolution be synthesized and developed concurrently. Except for ion beam lithography, DUV, X-ray, and in particular electron beam lithography suffer significantly from proximity effects, leading to severe degradation of resolution in classical resists. We report a new class of resists based on organic/inorganic nanocomposites having a structure that reduces the proximity effects. Synthetic routes are described for a ZEP520®nano-SiO2 resist where 47nm wide lines have been written with a 40 nm diameter, 20 keV electron beam at no sensitivity cost. Other resist systems based on polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane copolymerized with MMA, TBMA, MMA and a proprietary PAG are also presented. These nanocomposite resists suitable for DUV and electron beam lithography show enhancement in both contrast and RIE resistance in oxygen. Tentative mechanisms responsible for proximity effect reduction are also discussed.