scholarly journals Limiting amino acids supplementation in low crude protein diets and their impacts on growth performance and carcass composition in Labeo rohita (rohu) adult fish

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ayub ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
S. N. Qaisrani ◽  
S. Parveen ◽  

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.

2006 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-59
Nancy Montilla ◽  
Lolito Bestil ◽  
Sulpecio Bantugan ◽  

A feeding trial with broilers was conducted to evaluate the effects of amino acids (lysine and methionine) supplementation of diets low in protein content on the voluntary intake, feed conversion efficiency, broiler performance, and cost and return of broiler production. Results showed cumulative voluntary feed intake was not significantly affected by lowering the protein content of the diet. Cumulative weight gain of broilers was lower with diet when supplemented iwht lysine and methionine to meet requirements. Birds fed with diets low in protein has less efficient feed converstion, but became comparable with those receiveing diets high in protein when supplemented with amino acids. Feed cost per kilogram broiler produced was not significantly affected by diets used in the study, although the low-protien diet with amino acid supplement had the lowest values. In terms of return above feed and chick cost, broilers fed with high-protein diet had the greatest value, but not significantly different from birds fed with low-protien diet with amino acid supplementation which gave about P10 per bird higher returns than those fed low-protein diet without amino acid supplementation.

1981 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-97 ◽  
A. J. Taylor ◽  
D. J. A. Cole ◽  
D. Lewis

ABSTRACTA basal diet containing 120 g crude protein per kg and 9g lysine per kg, and previously shown to be limiting in one or more essential amino acids and/or non-essential nitrogen, was examined. It was fed either alone to growing female pigs from 25 kg to 55 kg live weight or in combination with four supplements of synthetic amino acids each containing three out of isoleucine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. A control diet containing 140 g crude protein per kg and 9g lysine per kg was also included. Blood samples were collected at 40 kg live weight in order to examine the influence of dietary treatments on blood metabolites. Results for growth performance, carcass composition and blood urea indicated that threonine was the first limiting amino acid in the basal diet. Plasma free amino acids gave no clear trend. Growth performance and carcass composition were unaffected by supplementation of the diet with glycine indicating that the dietary supply of non-essential nitrogen was adequate.

Beena C. Joseph ◽  
Jayanaik . ◽  
C. S. Nagaraja

A study was conducted in Swarnadhara (SD) layers to find out the effect of reducing crude protein (CP) with supplementation of limiting amino acids to compensate the deficiency of CP. Egg weight and reproductive parameters such as fertility, hatchability, number of saleable chicks and day one old chick weight were studied in 240 SD layers in a completely randomized design in 5 treatments with 6 replications of 8 birds in each. The control diet (T1) was based on corn soy bean meal formulated with 16% CP and 2700 Kcal ME following the ICAR (2013) specifications recommended for improved native chicken breeds. The diets T2 to T5 were made isocaloric to control and composed with 15.5, 15.0, 14.5 and 14.0% CP, respectively. The levels of limiting amino acids namely methionine, lysine, threonine and tryptophan were met as that of control by adding synthetic preparation wherever necessary. Egg weight showed similar effects in all treatments at 32, 36 and 40 weeks of age. Reproductive parameters were recorded in four consecutive hatches and were statistically analyzed. Results showed similar performances in T1, T2, T3 and T5, but were different in T4 in terms of fertility, hatchability and number of saleable chicks. There was no significant difference in progeny chick weight among different treatment groups indicating amino acid supplementation supported equal performance in low CP diets in all the reproductive parameters.

1996 ◽  
Vol 199 (4) ◽  
pp. 923-931 ◽  
P M Taylor ◽  
S Kaur ◽  
B Mackenzie ◽  
G J Peter

We have measured rates of uptake of arginine, glutamine, glutamate, serine, phenylalanine and glycine in Xenopus laevis oocytes cultured for periods of up to 24h in saline in the presence or absence of a mixture of 20 amino acids at concentrations approximating those in Xenopus plasma. Amino acid supplementation increased the total intracellular amino acid concentration from 8.2 to 18.4 nmol per oocyte. Specific Na(+)-dependent amino acid transporters (systems B0,+, Xag-) exhibit 'adaptive regulation' (up-regulation during amino acid deprivation and down-regulation during amino acid supplementation). Na(+)-independent transporters of glutamate, glutamine and glycine (including system asc) display an opposite modulation in activity, which may help to combat amino-acid-induced oxidative stress by increasing the supply of glutathione precursors. Single amino acids at physiological plasma concentrations (0.47 mmol l-1 L-alanine, 0.08 mmol l-1 L-glutamate) mimicked at least some effects of the amino acid mixture. The mechanisms of transport modulation do not appear to include trans-amino acid or membrane potential effects and, in the case of Na(+)-independent transport, are independent of protein or mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not significantly affect endogenous glutamine and glutamate transport. The Xenopus oocyte appears to possess endogenous signalling mechanisms for selectively modulating the activity of amino acid transport proteins expressed in its surface membranes, a factor for consideration when using oocytes as an expression system for structure-function studies of cloned amino acid transporters.

2004 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-86 ◽  
T. Dahlman ◽  
J. Valaja ◽  
E. Venäläinen ◽  
T. Jalava ◽  
I. Pölönen

AbstractThe optimum pattern and limiting order of some essential amino acids for growing-furring blue foxes were assessed from nitrogen (N) retention responses. Total tract digestibility and N balance trials were carried out on 24 weaned blue fox males in an 8 ✕ 5 cyclic change-over experiment. Eight experimental diets were prepared by removing proportionately about 0·4 of each of the amino acids studied – methionine + cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan and histidine – successively from the amino acid control diet. The main source of protein in the amino acid control diet was casein and an amino acid mixture was added to bring the calculated crude protein (CP) content up to the level of 170 g/kg dry matter (DM). Low-protein (CP 95·7 g/kg DM) and high-protein (CP 166·6 g/kg DM) diets, the protein proportion of which was casein protein, served as negative and positive control diets, respectively. The reduction in N retention when one amino acid in turn was deleted from the amino acid control diet was calculated, and a regression analysis was made between N retention and relative amino acid intake. Data on the animals’ intake of each limiting amino acid and those on the amino acid control diet were used. The optimum amino acid pattern, expressed relative to lysine = 100, proved to be: methionine + cystine 77, threonine 64, histidine 55 and tryptophan 22. The first-limiting amino acids were methionine + cystine. Blue fox responses (N retention, weight gain) to deletion of methionine + cystine from the diet were very severe and exceeded those to deletion of any other amino acid. Moreover, removing methionine + cystine from the diet significantly impaired the apparent digestibility of organic matter, reducing it to a level even lower than that of the low-protein diet. After methionine + cystine, the next-limiting amino acid in casein-based diets was threonine, followed by histidine and tryptophan. The results show the importance of verifying the sufficiency of dietary methionine + cystine in the practical feeding of blue foxes.

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