Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) a magic enzyme: it’s role in diabetes mellitus and glucose homeostasis, interactions with fluroquionlones. A mini-review

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
N. Ali ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  
S. U. Rahman ◽  
S. Alghamdi ◽  

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.

2018 ◽  
Vol 96 (6) ◽  
pp. 577-586 ◽  
Oluwaseun A. Adeyanju ◽  
Olaniyi A. Soetan ◽  
Ayodele O. Soladoye ◽  
Lawrence A. Olatunji

Estrogen deficiency has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases , and recent clinical trials of standard formulations of hormonal therapies have not demonstrated consistent beneficial effects. Estrogen–progestin therapy has been used as exogenous estrogen to normalize depressed estrogen level during menopause. Ovariectomized rodents mimic an estrogen-deficient state in that they develop cardiometabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance (IR). We therefore hypothesized that hormonal therapy with combined oral contraceptive steroids, ethinylestradiol–levonorgestrel (EEL), improves IR, obesity, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) through reduction of circulating mineralocorticoid in ovariectomized rats. Twelve-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated (SHM) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with or without EEL (1.0 μg ethinylestradiol and 5.0 μg levonorgestrel) daily for 8 weeks. Results showed that OVX or SHM + EEL treated rats had increased HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of IR), 1 h postload glucose, HOMA-β, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL cholesterol, TG/HDL cholesterol, plasma insulin, GSK-3, corticosterone, and aldosterone. On the other hand, OVX + EEL treatment ameliorated all these effects except that of aldosterone. Taken together, the results demonstrate that oral hormonal replacement with EEL improves IR and pancreatic β-cell function and suppresses GSK-3 and glucocorticoid independent of circulating aldosterone, suggesting a positive cardiometabolic effect of oral EEL therapy in estrogen-deficient rats.

2020 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. 893-899
Selvaraj Jayaraman ◽  

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked with Glycogen synthase kinase-3 β.Therefore, it is ofinterest to document molecular docking analysis data of compounds from Justica adhatoda L with glycogen synthase kinase-3 β. We report the binding features of ethambutol, pyrazinamide, stigmasterol and vasicoline with GSK-3 β.

Endocrinology ◽  
2006 ◽  
Vol 147 (7) ◽  
pp. 3555-3562 ◽  
Mark Löwenberg ◽  
Jurriaan Tuynman ◽  
Meike Scheffer ◽  
Auke Verhaar ◽  
Louis Vermeulen ◽  

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful immunosuppressive agents that control genomic effects through GC receptor (GR)-dependent transcriptional changes. A common complication of GC therapy is insulin resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Evidence is increasing for rapid genomic-independent GC action on cellular physiology. Here, we generate a comprehensive description of nongenomic GC effects on insulin signaling using peptide arrays containing 1176 different kinase consensus substrates. Reduced kinase activities of the insulin receptor (INSR) and several downstream INSR signaling intermediates (i.e. p70S6k, AMP-activated protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3, and Fyn) were detected in adipocytes and T lymphocytes due to short-term treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic fluorinated GC. Western blot analysis confirmed suppressed phosphorylation of the INSR and a series of downstream INSR targets (i.e. INSR substrate-1, p70S6k, protein kinase B, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase, Fyn, and glycogen synthase kinase-3) after DEX treatment. DEX inhibited insulin signaling through a GR-dependent (RU486 sensitive) and transcription-independent (actinomycin D insensitive) mechanism. Overall, we postulate here a molecular mechanism for GC-induced insulin resistance based on nongenomic GR-dependent inhibition of insulin signaling.

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