scholarly journals Drinking water quality of various sources in Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat and Swat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. Awan ◽  
M. M. Ali ◽  
I. Q. Afridi ◽  
S. Kalsoom ◽  
S. Firyal ◽  

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.

2019 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 91-95
Shivali Bhardwaj ◽  
Arup Giri

Life could not be imagining without the presence of water on this earth. An ecosystem is very dependent on the quality of water. Regular water quality monitoring is very essential of a region. In the study area, no study has been yet done on the quality of drinking water and productivity level of Beas river near Arni University, Himachal Pradesh, India. The main aim of this study was to determine the water quality of three different sources of water like hand pump water, tap water, and Beas river water. For this, we have collected total twenty-six samples in the month of May 2018 and analysed for pH, TDS, EC, DO, alkalinity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, carbonate, bicarbonate, E. coli, and productivity level by standard methods. The entire analysed parameters showed the lower level than the permissible guideline of the WHO except for the presence of E. coli and higher level of alkalinity. The productivity level of Beas river was indicating that trophic index belonged to the ultra-oligotrophic. From the findings, it might be concluded that hand pump water, tap water, and Beas river water was drinkable except the presence of E. coli and higher level of alkalinity in tap water and river water. However, in the case of the productivity level of Beas river was indicating the very low accumulation of dissolved nutrient salts, and a lower rate of algae growth as the productivity level belonged to the ultra-oligotrophic. Further extensive study on the water minerals and heavy metals level in all the water sources are required in this study area.

2015 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Javid Ali ◽  
Said Hassan ◽  
Dr Ziaurahman ◽  
Inayat Ur Rahman ◽  
Sadhair Abbas ◽  

The present study was aimed to isolate and identify micro-organisms load of drinking water of Mardan city, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 27 samples of drinking water were collected from different locations of the study area. Total Plate Count was determined by pour plate method, while total coliforms, total fecal coliforms and E. coli were determined by multiple tube fermentation method. Of the total collected samples, 17 (62.96%) samples were contaminated with either one or more than one type of microorganisms. The results of most probable number test showed that 13 (48.15%) samples were unsatisfactory. It was concluded that the water should be treated before consumption for drinking purpose. Regular assessment of the water quality is recommended as regular monitoring of the water quality for improvement not only prevents disease and hazards but also checks the water resources from becoming further polluted. ECOPRINT 21: 1-6, 2014DOI:

2017 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 111-119
Lela Uyara ◽  
Pieter Kunu ◽  
Silwanus M Talakua

The study aims to determine the quality of clean water in the villages of Wainitu, Batumerah, Amahusu and Halong by comparing the result of water quality analysis with water quality standard. Water quality analysis includes Physiscal, Chemical, and Microbiological parameters. This research uses descriptive method, this method describes systematics, accurate about facts and characteristic of the quality of clean water of each research location. The results showed that the source of clean water in the village of Batumerah did not meet the standard of clean water quality standards indicated by the number of E. coli and the high total coliform.  Keywords: standard quality of clean water, water quality, Wainitu, Batumerah, Amahusu and Halong villages   ABSTRAK Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menetapkan kualitas air bersih di Desa Wainitu, Batumerah, Amahusu dan Halong, dengan membandingkan hasil analisis kualitas air dengan standar baku mutu air bersih. Analisis kualitas air meliputi parameter fisika, kimia dan mikrobiologi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif; metode ini menggambarkan sicara sistematis, akurat, fakta dan karakteristik mengenai kualitas air bersih di masing-masing lokasi penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sumber air bersih di Desa Batumerah tidak memenuhi standar baku mutu air bersih yang ditunjukkan oleh jumlah E. coli dan total Koliform yang tinggi. Kata Kunci: baku mutu air bersih, Desa Wainitu, Batumerah, Amahusu dan Halong, kualitas air

1993 ◽  
Vol 27 (7-8) ◽  
pp. 287-294 ◽  
S. Lerman ◽  
O. Lev ◽  
A. Adin ◽  
E. Katzenelson

The Israel Ministry of Health is now revising its regulations for the assurance of safe water quality in public swimming pools. Since it is not possible to monitor each of the pathogenic microorganisms, it is often recommended to monitor indicator bacteria which provide indirect information on the water quality in the swimming pool. Three indicator microorganisms are often recommended: coliform counts (total coliforms, fecal coliforms or E. Coli), staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. A four year survey of the water quality of swimming pools in the Jerusalem District was conducted in order to determine whether the monitoring of all three indicators is necessary to assure safe water quality or is it sufficient to monitor only a single microorganism. A statistical analysis, conducted by using several different statistical techniques, reveals that the populations of the three indicator organisms are significantly interdependent but the correlations between each pair of these indicators are not sufficient to base a prediction of any of the organisms based on the measurements of the others. Therefore, it is concluded that monitoring of all three indicators should be recommended in order to provide an adequate picture of the water quality in swimming pools.

2018 ◽  
Vol 59 ◽  
pp. 00025
Agnieszka Szuster – Janiaczyk ◽  
Rafał Brodziak ◽  
Jędrzej Bylka

One of the processes that significantly determines the quality of water to consumers is the process of mixing water from different sources in the water mains. Put to the network two or more chemically and biologically stable waters may result in the formation of water that will be deprived of these features. This article presents the german guidelines for analysing water quality for mixing waters from different sources, in various proportions. Then performed an analysis of utility the mathematical models,including quality criteria, for use in network control. An IT tool has been developed to manage selected water quality processes using mathematical modeling. The basis for implementing the tool was a network model created in Epanet integrated with the Matlab.

2021 ◽  
Vol 193 (8) ◽  
Desmond Tichaona Mugadza ◽  
Sibusisiwe Isabel Nduku ◽  
Edlyn Gweme ◽  
Sherpherd Manhokwe ◽  
Patience Marume ◽  

Water SA ◽  
2015 ◽  
Vol 41 (5) ◽  
pp. 691
Tatenda G Chirenda ◽  
Sunitha C Srinivas ◽  
R Tandlich

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Juliana Nazareth de Lana ◽  
Márcio de Oliveira ◽  
Vanessa Romario de Paula ◽  
Cézar Henrique Barra Rocha

Changes in the land use and land cover in areas adjacent to water reservoirs directly affect the quality of this water. This research presents a study on the water quality in the basin of one of the most important public water supply reservoirs in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. The main objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of limnological parameters and the correlation with land use and land cover in the contribution basin of the Doutor João Penido reservoir (CBJPR). The methodology was based on the analysis of water quality parameters, related to water samples collected from 2012 to 2015. Six sampling points were chosen from different locations: spring, medium course, main tributaries of the reservoir and the reservoir catchment. The parameters analyzed were turbidity, total solids (TS), oxygen consumed (OC), dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), E. Coli, temperature, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). The Kendall’s tau test was used to analyze the correlations between the parameters of water quality, land use and land cover in the CBJPR. In general, measured parameters showed better results in spring and in reservoir catchment, showing a worse quality of the water along the tributaries and the dilution power of the reservoir. The correlations pointed to the need for protection and preservation of forests in strategic locations to ensure good water quality.

2017 ◽  
Vol 5 (4RASM) ◽  
pp. 71-77
Babitha Rani ◽  
Dimple Bahri ◽  
Prabin Neupane ◽  
Kunal Kothari ◽  
Vishal Gadgihalli ◽  

A study was carried out to find out the water quality ofByramangala lake of Ramanagara district. The water quality of Byramangala lake water and ground water from bore wells situated in the area within 600 meters surrounding the lake was analyzed. The quality analysis of various parameters such as BODs, COD, DO, E-Coli, and pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids and Total Hardness were tested. In addition, the presence of metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), and Iron (Fe) in the lake water and ground water samples were tested. Results for the various tests conducted showed similar trends for both lake water and ground water. It was observed that certain parameters such as BOD5, and COD were beyond permissible limits as per the BIS standards for drinking water. A few remedial measures have been proposed that may help in mitigating the pollution in the selected project area Byramangala Lake.

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