scholarly journals Mechanical Properties and Clinical Significance of Orthodontic Wires

Mohamed Ali Sawas ◽  
Mohammed Ahmed Al Nassir ◽  
Lojain Mohammed Nayas ◽  
Meshari Nasser Alabdulkarim ◽  
Farah Youssef Faden ◽  

Orthodontic treatment is usually conducted by applying forces to certain teeth to move them into a targeted position. Orthodontic wires have been reported to be the primary modalities used in fixed-appliances-based orthodontic treatment to induce favorable tooth movement events. Accordingly, acquiring adequate knowledge about these approaches' clinical applications and biochemical behavior is essential when planning for a successful orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic wires are widely used and are mainly composed of composites, polymers, alloys and metals. Accordingly, the physical properties and clinical application of orthodontic wires vary based on their composition. In this context, it was recommended that achieving favorable outcomes of orthodontic treatment obliges clinicians to decide the best orthodontic wire and treatment plan based on the chemical properties and related clinical applications of each wire. Therefore, wires that tend to produce increasing stiffness gradually are generally used. However, it should be noted that no ideal wire exists. Therefore, favoring the application of a wire over the other should be based on the intended outcomes and stage of the treatment process. 

2019 ◽  
Vol 69 (12) ◽  
pp. 3727-3730 ◽  
Ana Nemtoi ◽  
Ana Sirghe ◽  
Alexandru Nemtoi ◽  
Danisia Haba

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), placed in extraction sockets, on bone regeneration and orthodontic tooth movement in adolescents. Fourty extraction sockets from twenty patients requiring extraction of first premolars based on their orthodontic treatment plan participated in this split-mouth clinical trial. Immediately, the teeth adjacent to the defects were pulled together by a NiTi closed-coil spring with constant force. The bone regeneration and the amount of orthodontic tooth movement was evaluated.

2012 ◽  
Vol 706-709 ◽  
pp. 514-519
Laurence Jordan ◽  
Pascal Garrec ◽  
Frédéric Prima

Tooth movements in an orthodontic treatment are the result of an applied force system, wire-bracket-ligature, and the response of the bone tissue. Starting an orthodontic treatment, it is necessary to exercise a sufficient initial force and then to maintain to obtain a continuous tooth movement. Orthodontic wires, which generate the biomechanical forces, usually transfer forces through brackets to trigger tooth movement. In the case of excessive forces of friction, they are behaving as an opposing force with respect to the movement of the tooth, making it sometimes slower or incontrollable [1].

2017 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Rhabiah El Fithriyah

Combination quad helix and bite riser posterior for anterior crossbite treatment. Anterior crossbite treatment can be done with the appliances either by removable appliances or fixed appliances. One fixed appliance that can be used in the treatment of anterior crossbite is a quad helix with a combination of bite raiser posterior. It is the preferred appliance for correction of maxillary dental constriction in a preadolescent child. Quad helix is activated by widening the anterior or posterior helices. An 11-year-old female patient referred to the clinic with a problem of crowding teeth that affected her appearance. The diagnosis for her case was malocclusions dentoalveolar class I angle along with anterior crossbite 12 and 21, anterior crowding maxilla with convex face profile, shifted median line, and no TMJ disorder. The treatment plan used a quad helix and bite riser posterior followed by a fixed orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to correct the anterior crossbite using a combination of a quad helix and bite raiser posterior. The patient was treated using composite bite raiser posterior on the occlusal surface of 16.26, and quad helix soldered to bands and cemented on 16 and 26. The patient was instructed to get her teeth controlled every two week to activate quad helix. After 3 months of active treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected. The appliance was left passively in place for 3 months as retention. The study concluded that crossbite treatment with a combination of a quad helix and bite riser was effective in correcting anterior crossbite in adolescents.ABSTRAKPerawatan crossbite anterior dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa macam alat baik dengan alat lepasan ataupun alat cekat. Salah satu alat semi cekat yang dapat digunakan pada perawatan crossbite anterior adalah quad helix dengan kombinasi tanggul gigitan posterior. Quad helix merupakan alat yang dapat digunakan untuk konstriksi dental di maksila pada masa remaja. Seorang pasien anak perempuan berusia 11 tahun mengeluhkan keadaan giginya yang berjejal dan menganggu penampilannya. Diagnosis kasus adalah maloklusi dentoalveolar kelas I angle disertai crossbite gigi 12 dan 21, crowding anterior rahang atas dengan profil muka cembung, garis median tidak sesuai dan tidak disertai gangguan TMJ. Rencana perawatan menggunakan quad helix dan tanggul gigitan posterior kemudian dilanjutkan dengan perawatan ortodontik cekat. Tujuan artikel ini adalah menyajikan perawatan crossbite anterior dengan menggunakan kombinasi quad helix dan tanggul gigitan posterior. Pasien dirawat menggunakan tanggul gigitan komposit posterior pada permukaan oklusal gigi 16, 26 dan quad helix yang disolder pada molar band dan disementasi di molar band pada gigi 16 dan 26 kemudian pasien diinstruksikan untuk kontrol setiap dua minggu satu kali kunjungan untuk aktivasi quad helix. Setelah perawatan aktif 3 bulan crossbite anterior telah terkoreksi. Alat ditinggalkan di dalam mulut dalam keadaan pasif selama 3 bulan sebagai retensi. Dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa perawatan crossbite dengan kombinasi quad helix dan tanggul gigitan posterior efektif dalam mengoreksi  crossbite anterior pada remaja.

2017 ◽  
Vol 2017 ◽  
pp. 1-8 ◽  
Rajesh Gyawali ◽  
Bhagabat Bhattarai

Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 146531252110064
Ama Johal ◽  
Lars Bondemark

Orthodontics has witnessed not only an exponential rise in demand from adult patients but accompanying this, the emergence of alternate aesthetic treatment options to the more traditional fixed labial appliance. The concept of using clear aligners as a means of achieving tooth movement has increased in popularity among both patients and clinicians alike. However, the question over best research evidence as to their clinical effectiveness to treat a range of malocclusion traits remains elusive and controversial among the profession. In an attempt to offer the profession some clear guidance, The Angle Society of Europe reviewed and discussed the current published evidence (2005–2018) on their clinical use, during the annual meeting in January 2020, to help formulate a consensus viewpoint on the clinical applications.

2013 ◽  
Vol 2013 ◽  
pp. 1-3 ◽  
Mohammad Hoseini ◽  
Seyed Morteza Saadat Mostafavi ◽  
Navid Rezaei ◽  
Ehsan Javadzadeh Boluri

Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided.

2009 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
pp. 387-393 ◽  
Kazuaki Nishimura ◽  
Shinobu Amano ◽  
Kimihisa Nakao ◽  
Shigemi Goto

Abstract The patient was a 24-year-old Japanese female. The chief complaints were crowding and masticatory dysfunction due to the missing right first molar. Her maxillary first premolars had been extracted when she was a primary school student. We planned orthodontic treatment with extraction of the mandibular first premolars and transplantation of the mandibular left first premolar into the maxillary right first molar area. We made a diagnostic setup model to initiate an appropriate treatment plan for the discrepancy in tooth size ratio. Following the diagnostic setup model, the space in the maxillary right first molar area was closed by a small amount of tooth movement, and a good occlusion was achieved. The patient had been in retention for 7 years, and the occlusion has been maintained very well during this time. In the follow-up, 10 years after autotransplantation, no signs of inflammatory or replacement root resorption were found, and marginal bone support appeared similar to that of neighboring teeth.

2017 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
Ainuddin Yushar Yusof ◽  
Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab ◽  
Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin ◽  
Sahidan Senafi ◽  
Maryati Abdul Rahman

Introduction: Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex process involving tooth and periodontal tissue, which release enzymes and biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate enzymes activities of salivary fluid during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A group of nineteen healthy subject (mean age 21.5 years) with Class II/1 malocclusion who required extraction of maxillary first premolar were recruited. Saliva samples were collected from these 19 patients that underwent canine traction using fixed appliances. Enzymes activities were measured before placement of fixed appliances (basal activity) followed with immediately before and weekly canine retraction for five weeks. The specific Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Tartrate Resistance Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities in saliva sample were analyzed using spectrophotometer (405nm). Result: No statistical significant (p> 0.05) difference was noted in LDH activity between basal activity and during canine retraction period. AST showed higher activity compared to basal activity from week 0 to week 1 with statistically significant increased (p<0.05) found in week 1. ALP showed significantly higher enzyme activity compared to basal activity from week 1 to 5, with the peak level at week 5. While TRAP showed significant increase in enzyme activity compared to basal activity only at week 2 after canine retraction. Conclusion(s):  Orthodontic tooth movement can be monitored through the expression of AST, TRAP and ALP activity in saliva. Saliva LDH cannot be used as a biomarker in monitoring tooth movement.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 50-59
Chiho Kato ◽  
Satoshi Kokai ◽  
Takashi Ono

There are several options for replacing a missing maxillary central incisor in orthodontic treatment. Substituting a missing central incisor with the contralateral one can be a useful approach to reduce the number of teeth that require extraction during the treatment. Normal tooth movement across an ossified midpalatal suture (MPS) has only been observed in an animal experiment. Herein, we describe the treatment of a 26-year-old woman who had lost multiple teeth on one side, including the maxillary right central incisor, which required extraction due to endodontic failure. The maxillary left central incisor was moved into the position of the maxillary right central incisor. All other left maxillary teeth were moved mesially to close the space. After completion of orthodontic treatment, acrylic build-up was performed on the maxillary left lateral incisor, which underwent morphological modification to replicate the morphology of a maxillary right incisor. The patient was pleased with the treatment outcome. Cone-beam computed tomography provided evidence of tooth movement across the MPS. Although the movement of the tooth across the MPS is feasible, the treatment plan should also take other treatment options into consideration.

Julia Cohen-Levy, DDS

This chapter reviews T-Scan use in orthodontics from diagnosis to case finishing, and then in retention, while defining normal T-Scan recording parameters for orthodontically-treated subjects versus untreated subjects. T-Scan use in the case-finishing process is also described, which compensates for changes in the occlusion that occur during “post-orthodontic settling,” as teeth move freely within the periodontium to find an equilibrium position when the orthodontic appliances have been removed. T-Scan implementation is necessary because, often, despite there being a post treatment, visually “perfect” angle's Class I relationship established with the orthodontic treatment, ideal occlusal contacts do not result solely from tooth movement. Creating simultaneous and equal force occlusal contacts following fixed appliance removal can be accomplished using T-Scan data to optimize the end-result occlusal contact pattern. The T-Scan software's force distribution and timing indicators (the two- and three-dimensional force views, force percentage per tooth and arch half, the center of force trajectory and icon, the occlusion time [OT], and the disclusion time [DT]), all aid the Orthodontist in obtaining an ideal occlusal force distribution during case-finishing. Fortunately, most orthodontic cases remain asymptomatic during and after tooth movement. However, an occlusal force imbalance or patient discomfort may occur along with the malocclusion that needs orthodontic treatment. Symptomatic cases require special documentation at the baseline, and careful monitoring throughout the entire orthodontic process. The clinical use of T-Scan in these “fragile” cases of patient muscle in-coordination, mandibular deviation, atypical pain, and/or TMJ idiopathic arthritis, are illustrated by several case reports. The presented clinical examples highlight combining T-Scan data recorded during case diagnosis, tooth movement, and in case finishing, with patients that underwent lingual orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, orthodontic treatment using clear aligners, or conventional fixed treatment with a camouflage treatment plan, which require special occlusal finishing (when premolars are extracted in only one arch).

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