scholarly journals The Effect of Pristine and Pegylated Graphene Oxide Nanosheets on the Functions of Human Neutrophils

2022 ◽  
Valeria Timganova ◽  
Svetlana Zamorina ◽  
Maria Bochkova ◽  
Anton Nechaev ◽  
Pavel Khramtsov ◽  

Graphene oxide (GO) is very useful for biomedicine, due to its physicochemical properties; therefore, its interaction with cells of the immune system has beenextensively studied. Many studies have aimed toreduce the undesirable effects of GO through chemical modification, including through polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating. Neutrophils are the first to respond to foreign object invasion in the body. Their main functions are the uptake and destruction of foreign particles, including with the help of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Our study aimed to investigate theengulfment of unmodified graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide coated with polyethylene glycol (GO-PEG) by human neutrophils and the effect of nanosheets on the production of ROS.We used sheets of GO (Ossila, Great Britain, average plate size 1-5 μm) and GO-PEG (569 ± 14 nm, PEG coating≈ 20%) at concentrations of 12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL. The uptake of nanosheets was assessed by flow cytometry, taking into account the level of background adhesion of nanoparticles. ROS production was evaluated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LCL).It was found that GO (12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL) was actively internalized by neutrophils, while the uptake of GO-PEG was not detected. GO and GO-PEG particles (25 μg/mLand 50 μg/mL) reduced the total production of ROS by human leukocytes.Thus, the modifying of GOnanosheets with PEG resulted in the abolishment of their active uptake by neutrophils but did not affect the GO inhibitory effect on their oxidative activity. Keywords: graphene oxide surface modification, pegylated graphene oxide nanosheets, nanoparticle uptake, human neutrophils, of reactive oxygen species

2021 ◽  
Vol 56 (16) ◽  
pp. 10041-10052
Laura Sánchez-Abella ◽  
Virginia Ruiz ◽  
Adrián Pérez-San Vicente ◽  
Hans-Jürgen Grande ◽  
Iraida Loinaz ◽  

2021 ◽  
Małgorzata Olszowy-Tomczyk

AbstractOxidative stress, associated with an imbalance between the oxidants (reactive oxygen species) and the antioxidants in the body, contributes to the development of many diseases. The body’s fight against reactive oxygen species is supported by antioxidants. Nowadays, there are too many analytical methods, but there is no one universal technique for assessing antioxidant properties. Moreover, the applied different ways of expressing the results lead to their incompatibility and unreasonable interpretation. The paper is a literature review concerning the most frequent ways of antioxidant activities expression and for an easy and universal method of the obtained results discussion. This paper is an attempt to point out their disadvantages and advantages. The manuscript can support the searching interpretation of the obtained results which will be a good tool for the development of a number of fields, especially medicine what can help in the future detection and treatment of many serious diseases. Graphic abstract

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 466
Rachid Skouta

Maintaining the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the body is highly important in the fight against radical species in the context of human health [...]

Anahita Rezaeiroshan ◽  
Majid Saeedi ◽  
Katayoun Morteza-Semnani ◽  
Jafar Akbari ◽  
Akbar Hedayatizadeh-Omran ◽  

Abstract Purposes Reactive oxygen species production is harmful to human’s health. The presence of antioxidants in the body may help to diminish reactive oxygen species. Trans-ferulic acid is a good antioxidant, but its low water solubility excludes its utilization. The study aims to explore whether a vesicular drug delivery could be a way to overcome the poor absorption of trans-ferulic acid hence improving its antimicrobial efficiency and antioxidant effect. Methods Niosomal vesicles containing the drug were prepared by film hydration method. The obtained vesicles were investigated in terms of morphology, size, entrapment efficiency, release behavior, cellular cytotoxicity, antioxidant, cellular protection study, and antimicrobial evaluations. Results The optimized niosomal formulation had a particle size of 158.7 nm and entrapment efficiency of 21.64%. The results showed that the optimized formulation containing 25 μM of trans-ferulic acid could enhance the viability of human foreskin fibroblast HFF cell line against reactive oxygen species production. The minimum effective dose of the plain drug and the niosomal formulation against Staphylococcus aurous (ATCC 29213) was 750 µg/mL and 375 µg/mL, respectively, and for Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), it was 750 µg/mL and 187/5 µg/mL, respectively. The formulation could also improve the minimum bactericidal concentration of the drug in Staphylococcus aurous, Escherichia coli, and Acinobacter baumannii (ATCC 19606). Conclusion These results revealed an improvement in both antibacterial and antioxidant effects of the drug in the niosomal formulation.

2017 ◽  
Vol 2017 ◽  
pp. 1-11 ◽  
Alena Pecinova ◽  
Zdenek Drahota ◽  
Jana Kovalcikova ◽  
Nikola Kovarova ◽  
Petr Pecina ◽  

Metformin is widely prescribed as a first-choice antihyperglycemic drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and recent epidemiological studies showed its utility also in cancer therapy. Although it is in use since the 1970s, its molecular target, either for antihyperglycemic or antineoplastic action, remains elusive. However, the body of the research on metformin effect oscillates around mitochondrial metabolism, including the function of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) apparatus. In this study, we focused on direct inhibitory mechanism of biguanides (metformin and phenformin) on OXPHOS complexes and its functional impact, using the model of isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria. We demonstrate that biguanides nonspecifically target the activities of all respiratory chain dehydrogenases (mitochondrial NADH, succinate, and glycerophosphate dehydrogenases), but only at very high concentrations (10−2–10−1 M) that highly exceed cellular concentrations observed during the treatment. In addition, these concentrations of biguanides also trigger burst of reactive oxygen species production which, in combination with pleiotropic OXPHOS inhibition, can be toxic for the organism. We conclude that the beneficial effect of biguanides should probably be associated with subtler mechanism, different from the generalized inhibition of the respiratory chain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (2) ◽  
pp. 44-52
N.G. Zemlianskykh ◽  
L.O. Babiychuk ◽  

Protein modifications in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex (MCC) of human erythrocytes, as well as changes in the intensity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production upon cell cryopreservation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were investigated. The protein profile of ghosts of erythrocytes frozen with PEG has common features with both the control and cells frozen without cryoprotectant. PEG makes it possible to restrict the structural rearrangements of the main MCC proteins under the effect of extreme factors and to restrain the amount of high molecular weight polypeptide complexes induced by the protein-cross-linking reagent diamide at the control level, in contrast to cells frozen without a cryoprotectant. However, changes related to the protein peroxiredoxin 2 in ghosts of erythrocytes cryopreserved with PEG are also attributed to cells frozen without a cryoprotectant that may be associated with the activation of oxidative processes. This is evidenced by a 10-fold increase in ROS formation in erythrocytes frozen under PEG protection. Thus, upon cryopreservation of erythrocytes with PEG, certain disorders in MCC proteins may be associated with increased formation of ROS, which may contribute to the disorganization of the structural components of MCC and disrupt the stability of cryopreserved cells under physiological conditions.

2008 ◽  
Vol 32 (12) ◽  
pp. 1486-1496 ◽  
Sergey Shleev ◽  
Jonas Wetterö ◽  
Karl-Eric Magnusson ◽  
Tautgirdas Ruzgas

Nanoscale ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 10 (25) ◽  
pp. 11820-11830 ◽  
Marco Pelin ◽  
Laura Fusco ◽  
Cristina Martín ◽  
Silvio Sosa ◽  
Javier Frontiñán-Rubio ◽  

Graphene based nanomaterials induce a reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial depolarization, caused by the activation of NADH dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase.

2020 ◽  
Vol 44 (26) ◽  
pp. 11248-11255
Vijayesh Kumar ◽  
Abhay Sachdev ◽  
Ishita Matai

A new dimension for the selective detection of short-lived ROS by an electroactive reduced graphene oxide–cerium oxide [email protected] c hydrogel.

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