scholarly journals Identification of the Secondary Metabolites and Characterization of Lagerstroemia Loudonii T. & B.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Fahrauk Faramayuda ◽  
Faizal Hermanto ◽  
Ari Sri Windyaswari ◽  
Soraya Riyanti ◽  
Viola Aditya Nurhayati

Bungur  (Lagerstroemia loudonii T. B) is a type of plant widely grown in Indonesia and can be found in teak forests, mixed forests, and is found as ornamental plants or protective trees on the roadside. In the fruit section, Lagerstroemia loudonii is used as antituberculous and antimalarial. On the bark, the part is used as antidiarrheal. Based on some parts of the Lagerstroemia loudonii  plants' activity data, this plant has the potential to be developed into traditional medicine. Standardized traditional medicine material is necessary to identify efficacious compounds and characterization in some parts of Lagerstroemia loudonii. The purpose of this research is to develop Lagerstroemia loudonii into traditional herbal medicine or standardized herbal medicine. Identification of efficacious compounds and characterization of crude leaf drugs, bark, stems, and fruit of Lagerstroemia loudonii. The phytochemical screening phase of the crude drugs of leaves, bark, stems, and fruit ofLagerstroemia loudonii against includes examining alkaloids, flavonoids,  quinones, tannins, polyphenols, saponins, steroids and triterpenes, monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The determination of the characteristics of raw material carried out includes nonspecific parameters. Nonspecific parameters are the determination of total ash content, water-soluble ash content, acid insoluble ash content. each experiment was carried out three times and calculated the average yield and deviation.  Identification results of the class of efficacious compounds in some parts of the Lagerstroemia loudonii  plant are on the leaves and fruits containing alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, tannins, polyphenols, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids as well as steroids and triterpenoids. At the bark and stem, the bark contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, tannins, polyphenols, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids. Characterization results of Lagerstroemia loudonii  leaf extract total ash content 4.45 ± 0.30% w/w, water-soluble ash content 4.08 ± 0.27% w/w, acid insoluble ash content 0.59 ± 0.06% w/w, the extract specific gravity was 0.59 ± 0.063. Lagerstroemia loudonii  stem bark extract, total ash content 1.94 ± 0.12% w/w, water-soluble ash content 1.47 ± 0.03% w/w, acid insoluble ash content 0.24 ± 0.02% w/w, the extract specific gravity is 0.82 ± 0.01. Lagerstroemia loudonii  stem extract, total ash content3.18 ± 0.16% w/w, water-soluble ash content 2.36 ± 0.38% w/w, acid insoluble ash content 0.43 ± 0.07% w/w, extract specific grafity 0.81 ± 0.01. Lagerstroemia loudonii  fruit extract, total ash content 11.45 ± 1.16%w/w, water-soluble ash content 10.1 ± 1.49% w/w, acid insoluble ash content 1.46 ± 0.88% w/w,extract specific grafity 0.81 ± 0.01. Based on phytochemical screening data and the characterization of bungur plants potential to be developed into raw materials for traditional medicineKeywords: Lagerstroemia loudonii, secondary metabolite, raw material characterization

2017 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
Erlindha Gangga ◽  
Rani Purwati ◽  
Yunahara Farida ◽  
Kartiningsih Kartiningsih

Cincau Hijau leaves (Cyclea barbata L.Miers ) has been used empirically as a medicinal plant because it contains many potential compounds such as flavonoids. Cincau Hijau leaves has been known as antioxidant activity. Determination of pharmacognosy parameters and phytochemical screening of dry leaves and extracts have been carried out as well as determination of total fl avonoids content. Fresh leaves were extracts with water and Dry leaves were macerated with 96% ethanol and were then concentrated by rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated using DPPH method. Afterwards, determination of specifi c and non-specifi c parameters were performed. Results of phytochemical screening of powder and 50% and 96% ethanol extract showed that tall the tested samples contained alkaloid, fl avonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids/ triterpenoids, coumarin. The examination of specifi c parameter showed that the extract has a thick consistency, tawny color, bitter taste, characteristic odor. In addition, water-soluble compound and 96% ethanol extract are 46.64 and 62.13% respectively whereas ethanol-soluble compounds are 39.22 and 74.72%, respectively. While the results of nonspecifi c parameters of 50% and 96 % ethanol extract displayed total ash content of 9.69 and 9.49%, respectively, acid insoluble ash content of 0.30 and 0.16%, respectively, content of water soluble ash of 9.17 and 4.30%, respectively, loss on drying of 9.35 and 8.9%, respectively, water content of 8.45 and 7.25%, respectively. Based on heavy metal contamination, Pb concentration in 50 and 96% ethanol extract are 0.0227 and 0.0333 mg/kg, respectively whereas Cd concentration are 0.1206 and 0.0022 mg/kg, respectively and total number of CFU of 4,22 x 103 and 2,30 x 103 colonies/g, respectively while molds and yeasts number of colony of 0,48 x 102 and 8,88 x 102 colonies/g, respectively. Moreover, the total flavonoid was 0,19 %. Result of DPPH inhibition test showed that IC50 96 % ethanol extract are 83,280 ppm and water extracts are 102,01 ppm

2017 ◽  
Vol 54 (06) ◽  
pp. 65-68
N. K Choudhary ◽  
S. Sharma ◽  
S. Goyal ◽  
J. Dwivedi

In traditional system of medicine, Calotropis gigantea (Akra) has been used for treatment of various diseases. Since, there is no proper information regarding pharmacognostic parameters of flowers of this plant, our efforts were devoted to study the microscopical characters and phytochemical study of flowers of this plant. Microscopic evaluation of gynostegium, sepal/ calyx, petal, ovary and pedicel were undertaken, determination of ash and extractive values, phytochemical screening and TLC for presence of triterpenoids. The microscopic characterization of the parts of the flower i.e. gynostegium, sepal/ calyx, petal, ovary and pedicel of Calotropis gigantea was performed. The physicochemical characterization‘s gave ash values (total ash: 18.60; acid insoluble ash: 5.46; water soluble ash; 13.50) and extraction with petroleum ether, chloroform and 90% ethanol extract gave 2.4, 3.9 and 2.1% w/w, respectively. TLC of chloroform extract showed the presence of triterpenoids. The microscopic study of the flower of Calotropis gigantea give us the foot prints for further study with the presence of triterpenoids in the flowers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (6) ◽  
pp. 2072-2076
Ricky Andi Syahputra ◽  
Ani Sutiani ◽  
Pasar Maulim Silitonga ◽  
Zulmai Rani ◽  
Amelia Kudadiri

Moringa leaf is a plant that has many uses that comes from the family Moringaceae and it is a tropical plant that is familiar to Indonesian people. Pharmacologically, this plant extract is reported to have antimicrobial and fungicide and it is rich in antioxidants. This metabolite compound contained in Moringa leaves has the potential as an antioxidant, antibacterial, functional and others. This study aims to determine the simplicia characterization of Moringa leaves and to determine the secondary metabolites contained in Moringa leaves, both Moringa leaf powder and Moringa leaf extract. The method of this research is experimental including the simplicia making and ethanol extract of Moringa leaves by maceration method, simplicia characterization and phytochemical screening. The results of the simplicia characterization of Moringa leaves for ethanol soluble extract content was 10,9% and water-soluble extract content was 15,8%, ash content was 9,6% and acid insoluble ash content was 0,6% and water content was 8%. The results of this study also showed that the simplicia powder and ethanol extract of Moringa leaves contained flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, steroid and saponin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 196-205
Risa Supriningrum ◽  
Reksi Sundu ◽  
Triswanto Sentat ◽  
Rakhmadhan Niah ◽  
Eka Kumalasari ◽  

The Sekilang plant (Embelia borneensis Scheff.) Is one of the plants used by the Dayak community for fishing, leech repellent and as an ingredient for hair care. Empirical use of plants can be developed into products based on natural ingredients. This must be supported by research data. As a first step, the simplicia and ethanol extract of the stem bark were characterized. The research objective was to determine the specific and non-specific characteristics of the simplicia and the extracts of the bark of the sekilang. The research stage includes plant determination, collection of raw materials, manufacture of simplicia, extract preparation, organoleptic, microscopic testing, phytochemical screening, determination of water soluble extract content, determination of ethanol soluble extract content, determination of water content and determination of ash content. Microscopy test results of sekilang stem bark showed the presence of fiber fragments, stone cells, and oxalate crystals. The average water soluble content for simplicia and sekilang bark extract was 7.5% and 80%. The average ethanol soluble content for simplicia and extract was 6% and 30%. The average moisture content for the simplicia and extract was 9.5% and 12%. The mean total ash content for simplicia and extract was 5% and 8.5%. The mean acid insoluble ash content for simplicia and extract was 1% and 0.5%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Andini Andini ◽  
Cindy Fernanda Putri

Mango peel (Mangfera indica L.) has many pharmacological effects as a traditional medicine. Therefore, standardization of mango peel simplisia needs to be done as a preparation of phytopharmaca raw material. This research aimed to obtain standardization of mango peel simplisia include specific and non-specific parameter. The research procedures include plant determination, simplisia preparation as well as specific standardization test (includes organoleptic, water-soluble compound concentration, and ethanol solution compound concentration) and nonspecific standardization test (includes moisture content, dried shrinkage, total ash content and acid insoluble ash content). The specific organoleptic parameters of dried mango peel simplisia have a distinctive sweet aroma, bitter taste, and brownish yellow colour. Water-soluble and ethanol-soluble concentrations are 22,36% ± 1,17% and 9,56% ± 0,07%. Moisture content is 9,09% ± 1,44%. Dried shrinkage rate is 0,19% ± 0,04%. Total ash and acid insoluble ash contents are 4,11% ± 0,10% and 0,14% ± 0,03%. The mango peel simplisia has met the quality standard of the raw material.

Jurnal Kimia ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
N. L.P.V. Paramita ◽  
N. M. D. Andani ◽  
I. A. P. Y. Putri ◽  
N. K. S. Indriyani ◽  
N. M. P. Susanti

Black tea is a type of tea in such a way the polyphenols undergo a high degree of oxidation. The characteristics of simplicia are strongly influenced by the environment. In order to use a simplicia as an active ingredient, characterization test are required for maintaining the quality and safety. This study aimed to find out the characteristic of black tea simplicia from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) which were taken from Bali Cahaya Amerta Tea Plantation, Angseri Village, Baturiti Sub-district, Tabanan Regency, Bali. The characterization of the simplicia was done based on standard parameters of tea plant in Farmakope Herbal Indonesia including macroscopic test, microscopic test, the loss on drying, the contents of water soluble compound, ethanol soluble compound, total ash, acid insoluble ash, total phenol and the identification of cathecin. The results showed that black tea simplicia elongated shaped with blackish brown, odorless, tasteless, and there were fragments identifier such as sclerenkim fibers, epidermis with stomata, macrosklerida, leaf mesophyll with vascular tissue, and rosette calcium oxalate crystals. The result of the compounds content that dissolve in water was 31.84% ± 0.6446%, compounds content that dissolve in ethanol was 16.64% ± 0.414%, the loss on drying was 5.19% ± 0.0902%, total ash content was 4.67% ± 0.0392%, ash content that was insoluble in acid was 0.19% ± 0.0025%, and the total fenol content was 0.9733% ± 0.0189%. From the results, the black tea simplicia fulfills the requirements of simplicia characteristic based on Farmakope Herbal Indonesia parameter.

2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
Abdul Ghofur ◽  
Aqli Mursadin

Berdasarkan ketersediaan sumber daya gambut yang besar di Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, maka peluang untuk memanfaatkan potensi tanah gambut sebagai sumber energi alternatif sangat besar. Sumber energi yang didapat dari minyak, gas bumi, dan batubara sedikit demi sedikit berkurang, sehingga perlu dicarikan sumber energi alternatif. Peneliti Lahan Gambut dari Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rawa Pertanian (Balittra) Banjarbaru, Dr Muhammad Noor dalam berita Banjarmasin post tanggal 24 Nopember 2005 tentang “PLN Melirik Lahan Gambut”  menjelaskan, dalam gambut memang terdapat energi yang dapat membangkitkan tenaga listrik, energi yang terdapat dalam gambut cukup tinggi yakni sekitar 5.000 kilo kalori per kilogram. Di Kalsel, keberadaannya setara dengan 65 miliar barel minyak bumi atau sebesar 10 juta barel per tahun energi yang dihasilkan.  Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut beberapa perumusan masalah  dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana usaha untuk melakukan tanah gambut untuk menjadi sumber energi alternatif  yang berkualitas dan  mudah digunakan,  bagimana karateristik tanah gambut sebagai sumber energi alternatif. Salah  satu  cara  untuk mengoptimalkan potensi gambut adalah memanfaatkannya sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan briket yang dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan bakar altematif  .  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah a) memanfaatkan ketersediaan sumber daya alam dengan menggunakan tanah gambut sebagai energi alternatif  dan b ) mengetahui Nilai kalori, berat jenis, kadar air dan kadar abu di wilayah studi. Tanah gambut yang digunakan sebagai  bahan baku untuk energi alternatif  berasal  dari Desa Gambut Kabupaten Banjar.  Prosedur pelaksanaan penelitian dilakukan terhadap karateristik tanah  gambut diwilayah studi  sebagai sumber energi. Dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa untuk tanah gambut di Desa Gambut Kec. Gambut bisa   untuk digunakan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif dengan  teknologi pembriketan. Dengan nilai Kadar Air  0,10%, Kadar Abu 72,65%, berat jenis 2,11 Gs dengan nilai kalori 579,2 cal/g bisa digunakan sebagai bahan  bakar alternatif. Key word : energi alternatif, nilai kalori, tanah gambut. Based on the availability of large peat resources in the province of South Kalimantan, the opportunity to utilize the potential of peat soil as an alternative energy source is very large. Energy sources derived from oil, natural gas, and coal gradually diminish, so alternative energy sources are needed. Peatland Researchers from the Agricultural Swamp Research Institute (Balittra) Banjarbaru, Dr. Muhammad Noor in the Banjarmasin post on November 24, 2005 on "PLN Looking at Peatlands" explained that in peat there is indeed energy that can generate electricity, energy contained in peat quite high at around 5,000 kilos of calories per kilogram. In South Kalimantan, its existence is equivalent to 65 billion barrels of oil or 10 million barrels per year of energy produced. Based on this background, several formulations of the problem in this study are how to make peat soils to be a quality alternative energy source that is easy to use, how the characteristics of peat soil as an alternative energy source. One way to optimize the potential of peat is to use it as a raw material in making briquettes that can be used as alternative fuels. The purpose of this study is a) utilizing the availability of natural resources by using peat soil as alternative energy and b) knowing the calorific value, specific gravity, moisture content and ash content in the study area. Peat soil used as raw material for alternative energy comes from the Gambut Village of Banjar Regency. The procedure for conducting research was carried out on the characteristics of peat soil in the study area as an energy source. From the results of this study indicate that for peat soil in the village of Gambut Kec. Peat can be used as an alternative fuel with briquette technology. With a value of 0.10% moisture content, ash content 72.65%, specific gravity of 2.11 Gs with a calorific value of 579.2 cal / g can be used as an alternative fuel. Key word: alternative energy, calorific value, peat soil.

2017 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 94-99
Syamsul Falah ◽  
Sulistiyani Sulistiyani ◽  
Dimas Andrianto

Nanoparticles-based drug delivery has been recognized to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, prolong the half-life of drug systematic circulation by reducing immunogenicity, and releases drugs at a sustain rate. The present study reports on the characterization of mahogany bark extract-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and their antioxidant activity.  Mahogany bark meal was extracted in boiled water for four hours.  Chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) nanospheres were sonicated with ultrasonicator to obtain chitosan-STTP nanocapsules for 30 and 60 min and then were dried with spray dryer. The chitosan-STPP nanocapsules loaded by mahogany extract were then analysed for surface morphology and physical state by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) using free radical method. Based on SEM data, the nanoparticle shapes were viewed to adhere to spherical shape. Spherical chitosan-STTP nanoparticles loaded with mahogany bark extract were obtained in the size range of 480 ~ 2000 nm and 240 ~ 1000 nm for 30 and 60 min of ultrasonication time, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles was lower than that of the native mahogany bark extract. 

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