scholarly journals Techniques for Reducing Iron (Fe) Content in Groundwater: an Article Review

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-45
Edy Agustian Yazid ◽  
Abdul Wafi ◽  
Arina Saraswati

Iron is a chemical element that is found in almost every place on earth, including in well water or groundwater. Iron can be suspended in water with organic substances or inorganic solids in the form of ferrous cations (Fe2+) and ferries (Fe3+). The presence of iron that exceeds the threshold can cause detrimental effects such as corrosion of the piping, the color of the water turns brown, smells bad, and can cause health problems. The iron content in groundwater can be reduced so that it can be used as water that is fit for consumption or use in everyday life. This study aims to determine several types of techniques used to reduce iron in groundwater or well water through literature studies. Techniques covered include filtration, aeration, adsorption, coagulation, electrocoagulation, and cascade aerators. The results showed that the greatest reduction in efficiency was found in the combination type of adsorption technique and filtration technique by more than 99.1%, then followed by the electrocoagulation technique of  99.74%. From all the techniques studied in this study, it can be concluded that all techniques can reduce iron levels in which the combination of adsorption and filtration techniques is the most effective.Keywords: Technique, reduction, iron content, groundwater

2013 ◽  
Vol 10 (02) ◽  
pp. 102-107 ◽  
N. Bezborodovs ◽  
G. Thornicroft

SummaryWork plays an important part in everyday life. For people experiencing mental health problems employment may both provide a source of income, improved self-esteem and stability, and influence the course and outcomes of the disorder. Yet in many countries the work-place consistently surfaces as the context where people with mental health problems feel stigmatised and discriminated the most. This paper will review the existing evidence of stigma and discrimination in the workplace, consider the consequences of workplace stigma on the lives of people experiencing mental health problems, and discuss implications for further action.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 46-52
Hendri Iyabu ◽  
Anita Muhammad ◽  
Jafar La Kilo ◽  
Akram La Kilo

This study aims to determine the iron content of water wells in Dulalowo and Heledulaa, Gorontalo City. Ten well water samples were taken randomly from five different wells in each district. Water samples at each well consist of top, middle, and bottom water. Determination of iron level using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) at a wavelength of 248.33 nm. The results showed that the iron concentration of well water in Dulalowo was 0.030 (D1), 0.265 (D2), 0.224 (D3), 0.158 (D4), 0.149 ppm (D5). Meanwhile, iron levels in Heledulaa were 0.100 (H1), 0.039 (H2), 0.159 (H3), 0.198 (H4), and 0.235 ppm (H5). These results prove that the Fe content in the well water in the two districts is still fulfil the drinking water standard which is a maximum of 0.3 mg/L iron.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (E) ◽  
pp. 1224-1227
Mulyadi Mulyadi ◽  
Zaenab Zaenab ◽  
Ain Khaer ◽  
Zrimurti Mappau ◽  
Adriyani Adam

BACKGROUND: Based on the results of laboratory examinations, initial samples taken from one of the clean water sources (dug wells) in Biringere Village, North Sinjai District, results showed that the water sample contained high enough metal ions such as Fe, Mn, hardness, and organic substances which did not meet the requirements as clean water because it still contained levels of Manganese (Mn) 1.68 mg/l. Meanwhile, for organic substances (KMnO4), it is 9876 mg/l. AIM: The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of multimedia filters in improving quality of clean water from the parameters of Mn and KMnO4 in clean water sources (dug wells).. METHODS: The type of research conducted is quasi-experimental by made a filtering processing method with a “Up Flow” flow system, using media consisting of silica sand, zeolite, resin (pine resin), and active carbon in PVC tubes. The population in this study were all dug wells in North Sinjai district. The samples were dug wells located on Biringere Village, North Sinjai District. The samples examined in Center for Environmental Health and disease control of Makassar. RESULTS: The results obtained were that there was a significant change in manganese (Mn) levels of 0.49 mg/l (80.37%). Meanwhile, organic substances (MnO4) amounted to 17.38 mg/l (70.02%). CONCLUSION: Decreasing levels of manganese (Mn) in well water after going through the multimedia filter process above show that the manganese content has met the standard requirements of the Minister of Health Regulation No. 32 of 2017.

Maini Bhattacharjee ◽  
Kasturi Majumder ◽  
Sabyasachi Kundagrami ◽  
Tapash Dasgupta

Rice is one of the most important staple food crops for billions of people throughout the world. It is the cheapest source of dietary energy, protein and minerals for people but poor in micronutrients such as Fe and Zn to eliminate “hidden hunger”. In the present study, a population of 126recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between Lemont X Satabdi (IET 4786) were used to identify high iron and zinc content coupled with yield and yield attributing traits. Analysis of Variance revealed that a considerable variation in iron and zinc existed among genotypes. The correlation study revealed that number of filled grain was positively associated with panicle length and yield per plant and number of panicles, but no significant positive correlation was observed between grain zinc content and iron content. Zinc and iron content of rice was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the samples were prepared by tri-acid digestion method. Among RIL lines, the line 57, 97,120, 48, 99, 124 contained more than 30 ppm Fe and the lines 24, 6, 9, 23, 29, 125 were found to possess more than 50 ppm Zn. The lines 9,6,48 and 57 were recorded to be high yielding with high zinc and Fe content in grain and in future these four lines look promising for multi location trial also. These high Fe and Zn content genotypes can be utilized in future breeding programme as a donor or good source for bio fortification of rice genotypes.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Mochamad Hilmy ◽  
Herry Prabowo

Fresh water is a vital requirement in human daily life. Teluk Bakung Village relies on fresh water supplies from the Ambawang River and wells made by the community. The condition of well water in Teluk Bakung Village tends to be the color of ground water which is influenced by the roots of trees, blackish brown and high iron content. The purpose of this Community Service activity is to carry out water filtration on gambut soil to improve the condition of fresh water sources at Al-Muhajirin Mosque in Mu'allaf village, Teluk Bakung Village, Sungai Ambawang District, Kubu Raya Regency, Kalimantan Barat as meeting the mosque's needs and the society. The method of applying IPTEKS is by transferring IPTEKS by improving the physical condition of the Al-Muhajirin Mosque building, the application of clean water filtration as well as training the local staffs for operations and maintenance as well as the plumbing network. It is expected that the addition of aeration system groundwater that has iron content will make it clearer than just filtration which has been carried out at that location.

2014 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Rosaleen O'Brien ◽  
Sally Wyke ◽  
Graham G.C.M. Watt ◽  
Bruce Guthrie ◽  
Stewart W. Mercer

Background Multimorbidity is common in patients living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation and is associated with poor quality of life, but the reasons behind this are not clear. Exploring the ‘everyday life work’ of patients may reveal important barriers to self-management and wellbeing. Objective To investigate the relationship between the management of multimorbidity and ‘everyday life work’ in patients living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland, as part of a programme of work on multimorbidity and deprivation. Design Qualitative study: individual semi-structured interviews of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) living in deprived areas with multimorbidity, exploring how they manage. Analysis was continuous and iterative. We report the findings in relation to everyday life work. Results The in-depth analysis revealed four key themes: (i) the symbolic significance of everyday life work to evidence the work of being ‘normal’; (ii) the usefulness of everyday life work in managing symptoms; (iii) the impact that mental health problems had on everyday life work; and (iv) issues around accepting help for everyday life tasks. Overall, most struggled with the amount of work required to establish a sense of normalcy in their everyday lives, especially in those with mental–physical multimorbidity. Conclusions Everyday life work is an important component of self-management in patients with multimorbidity in deprived areas, and is commonly impaired, especially in those with mental health problems. Interventions to improve self-management support for patients living with multimorbidity may benefit from an understanding of the role of everyday life work.

2013 ◽  
Vol 66 (2) ◽  
pp. 45-52 ◽  
Edward Borowski

<p>In experiments carried out in a phytotron using aqueous cultures, there was investigated the effect of root or foliar application of different types of iron salts on spinach plant productivity, leaf and root iron content as well as the rate of transport of iron from the roots to the leaves. Plants were grown in Hoagland's solution with a single concentration at two fluorescent light intensities: 290 and 95 µmol × m<sup>-2</sup> × s<sup>-1</sup> PAR. To fertilize the plants, iron was supplied at a dose of 25 mg Fe in the nutrient solution or as foliar sprays using the following salts: 1 – Fe 0; 2 – FeCl<sub>2</sub> × 4H<sub>2</sub>O; 3 – FeCl<sub>3</sub> × 4H<sub>2</sub>O; 4 – FeSO<sub>4</sub> × 7H<sub>2</sub>O; 5 – Fe<sub>2</sub>(SO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub> × nH<sub>2</sub>O; 6 – Fe-Cit.</p><p>The obtained results showed that the productivity of spinach plants treated with FeCl<sub>2</sub> and FeSO<sub>4</sub> using foliar sprays and of those fed with Fe-citrate (Fe-Cit) through the roots was significantly higher than in the case of the other salts used. Root application of the salts used had a significant effect on root iron content, whereas their foliar application significantly affected leaf iron content. In this respect, ferrous salts were generally the most beneficial, while ferric salts were the least beneficial. The rate of transport of iron to the leaves, irrespective of the method of its application, was clearly higher for ferrous salts and Fe-Cit than for ferric salts. The free proline content in the leaves of plants not fertilized with Fe was 2–4 times lower than in plants supplied with this nutrient. An irradiance of 290 µmol × m<sup>-2</sup> × s<sup>-1</sup> had a positive effect on plant productivity and root Fe content.</p>.

2017 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Wening Dwi Prastiwi ◽  
Khoironni Devi Maulana ◽  
Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo ◽  
Navela Rahma Aji ◽  
Atik Setyani

SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISTIK TiO2 DAN SiO2 SERTA APLIKASINYA TERHADAP KADAR Fe DALAM AIR SUMURABSTRAK Air merupakan kebutuhan yang terpenting dalam kehidupan manusia. Air berperan banyak dalam berbagai kegiatan manusia oleh karena itu kandungan yang ada di air harus bermanfaat bagi manusia. Banyak kandungan yang terdapat di air yang sangat bermanfaat, tetapi bayak juga kandungan air yang mungkin tidak bermanfaat bahkan bahaya jika digunakan oleh manusia, salah satunya yaitu kandungan logam berat terutama Fe (besi).  Sehingga tujuan pada penelitian ini untuk mengetahui penurunan kadar Fe (besi) dalam air sumur yang di lakukan dengan fotokimia dengan TiO2 dan SiO2 serta dapat mengidentifikasi karakteristik dari TiO2 dan SiO2. Sampel yang digunakan yaitu air sumur 300 m dibagi menjadi tiga masing-masing 100 ml dengan perlakuan yang berbeda. Pada sampel 100 ml pertama tidak diberikan perlakuan dan juga penambahan. Sampel 100 ml kedua diperlakukan dengan penambahan SiO2 dan pengadukan selama 1 jam, dan untuk sampel 100 ml ketiga diperlakukan dengan penambahan TiO2 dan pengadukan selama 1 jam. Ketiga sampel dengan perlakuan yang berbeda tersebut di analisis dengan menggunakan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) di Laboratorium Kimia Universitas Negeri Semarang. Hasil penelitian Analisis menggunakan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) menunjukkan hasil kadar Fe meningkat pada saat penambahan SiO2 dan TiO2 terhadap sampel yang tidak mendapatkan perlakuan tambahan. kadar Fe pada sampel yang tanpa penambahan sebanyak 0,206 mg/L, kemudian kadar Fe pada sampel yang ditambahkan SiO2 sebenyak 0,225 mg/L, dan kadar Fe pada sampel dengan penambahan TiO2 sebanyak 0,214 mg/L. Hal ini dikarenakan bentuk TiO2 dan SiO2 berupa suspensi. Kelemahan sistem suspensi ini adalah pemisahan partikel TiO2 memerlukan waktu yang lama dan biaya yang sangat mahal,serta daya tembus sinar sinar UV yang terbatas karena absorbsi yang kuat oleh TiO2 (efek bayangan) dan spesies organik terlarut. Kata Kunci: air sumur, TiO2, SiO2, Logam besi (Fe).   SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF TiO2 AND SiO2 APPLICATION TOWARD LEVELS OF Fe IN THE WELL WATER ABSTRACTWater is the most important need in human life. Also, water has many contributions in many human activities. Therefore, the existing content in the water must be beneficial for human. However, material contained in water may be beneficial yet dangerous for human as well, for instance heavy metals content, especially Fe (iron). The main objective of this study is to determine decreasing levels of Fe (iron) in the well water that is done by photochemical reaction using TiO2 and SiO2, and identify the characteristics of TiO2 and SiO2. Samples of well water used is 300 ml divided into three part, and every part of 100 ml water will be given different treatment. First 100 mL sample is not given any treatment and addition. Second 100 mL samples treated with the addition of SiO2 and stirring for an hour, and the third sample of 100 mL is treated with the addition of TiO2 and stirring for an hour. All of three samples with different treatments are analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) in the Chemistry Laboratory Semarang State University. The research result of analysis using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) shows Fe content increased as the addition of SiO2 and TiO2 in the samples than the sample without any additional treatment. Fe content in the sample without addition is 0.206 mg/L, while Fe content in the sample with addition of SiO2 is 0.225 mg/L, and Fe content in the sample with the addition of TiO2 is 0.214 mg/L. This caused by the form of TiO2 and SiO2 is a suspension. The weakness of this suspension system is the TiO2 particle separation takes a long time, very expensive, and also limited UV rays penetrating power because of the strong absorption by TiO2 (shadow effect) and may dissolved organic species. Keywords: well water, TiO2, SiO2, metals iron (Fe).

2019 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Mutmainah Kartini ◽  
Ratih Indrawati ◽  
Suwono Suwono

Abstract: Water is one of the important components in human life. The results of observations by researcher, the Wonodadi Hamlet  RT 07 / RW 10 people using dig well water as clean water source. The dig well water used contains high Fe content, so the people adds PAC and alum (Aluminum Sulfate) before using water to reduce Fe content. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference of Fe content in dug well water in Wonodadi Hamlet RT 07 / RW 10 which was PAC (Poly Aluminum Chloride) added with alum (Aluminum Sulfate) added. The research design used was quasi experimental research because it did not use the actual research design. The samples were dig well water treated by PAC 100 mg and alum 150 mg adds in every 1000 ml sample. The number of samples in this reserch was determined by replication formula, 16 samples of dig well water were PAC added and 16 samples of dig well water were alum added so that 32 samples were obtained. Samples of dig well water were taken at Wonodadi Hamlet RT 07 / RW 10. Analysis of Fe content in this research using AAS (Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer) method. The average of Fe content in the dig well water added by PAC was 0,9513 ppm. The average of Fe content in dig well water which was added by alum was 1,6735 ppm. Hypothesis in this research is alternative hypothesis (Ha) that there is difference of Fe content on dig well water in Wonodadi Hamlet RT 07 / RW 10 which PAC added with alum added. The result of computerized data processing through Paired T-Test obtained value p = 0,000 (p <0,05). Based on these results, Ha is received means that there is a difference in Fe content dig well water in Wonodadi Hamlet RT 07 / RW 10 which was PAC added with alum added.Abstrak: Air merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Hasil observasi yang dilakukan peneliti, masyarakat Dusun Wonodadi RT 07 / RW 10 menggunakan air sumur gali sebagai sumber air bersih. Air sumur gali yang digunakan mengandung kadar Fe tinggi, sehingga masyarakat tersebut menambahkan PAC dan tawas (Aluminium Sulfat) sebelum menggunakan air untuk menurunkan kadar Fe. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisa perbedaan kadar Fe pada air sumur gali di Dusun Wonodadi RT 07 / RW 10 yang diberi PAC (Poly Aluminium Chloride) dengan yang diberi tawas (Aluminium Sulfat). Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian quasi eksperimen karena tidak menggunakan rancangan penelitian yang sebenarnya. Sampel penelitian berupa air sumur gali yang diberi perlakuan dengan menambahkan PAC 100 mg dan tawas 150 mg pada setiap 1000 ml sampel. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini ditentukan dengan rumus replikasi, 16 sampel air sumur gali diberi PAC dan 16 sampel air sumur gali diberi tawas sehingga didapat 32 sampel. Sampel air sumur gali diambil di Dusun Wonodadi RT 07 / RW 10. Analisa penentuan kadar Fe dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode AAS (Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer). Rata-rata kadar Fe pada air sumur gali yang ditambahkan PAC adalah 0,9513 ppm. Rata-rata kadar Fe pada air sumur gali yang ditambahkan tawas adalah 1,6735 ppm. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah hipotesis alternatif (Ha) yaitu ada perbedaan kadar Fe pada air sumur gali di Dusun Wonodadi RT 07 / RW 10 yang diberi PAC dengan yang diberi tawas. Hasil pengolahan data secara komputerisasi melalui uji Paired T-Test diperoleh nilai p = 0,000 ( p < 0,05). Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, Ha diterima artinya ada perbedaan kadar Fe pada air sumur gali di Dusun Wonodadi RT 07 / RW 10 yang diberi PAC dengan yang diberi tawas.

1985 ◽  
Vol 49 (350) ◽  
pp. 97-100 ◽  
P. Maaskant

AbstractElectron probe microanalyses of zoisites from high-grade metamorphic rocks in Galicia, NW Spain have been obtained. The elements Na, Mg, P, K, Ti, and Mn were not detected above the 0.1 wt. % level. Assuming all Fe is present as Fe3+, a clear relation is obtained between the Fe content and the optic axial angle. Zoisite with 1.6 wt. % Fe2O3 proves to be uniaxial at 589 nm; uniaxiality in blue light (470 nm) lies at 1.5 wt. % Fe2O3. A change of the optic sign, from positive to negative, is obtained at 2.9 wt. % Fe2O3. The presence of minor elements greatly affects this relation, as is indicated by analyses of sector-zoned Sr-bearing zoisites of a muscovite-zoisite pegmatite from the same region. Under retrograde conditions Fe-rich α-zoisite reacts to form less Fe-rich α-zoisite or β-zoisite and clinozoisite.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document