Motherhood Modulates Cognitive Biases Toward Family Members: the Maternal Self-concept Re-examined Through Categorization Tasks

Mengyin Jiang ◽  
Jie Sui

Abstract The self-bias is a robust effect where self-related information is processed with greater priority than other-related information. Interestingly, the advantages of self-bias can be extended to close others – faster and more accurate responses for one’s mother and best friend have been observed compared to strangers – suggesting that significant others play an important role in the formation of one’s self-concept. Moreover, important life experiences such as childbirth can also impact the self-concept. Motherhood is a major transformation for women as one prepares to become a mother while maintaining the integrity of the pre-pregnant self-concept to achieve an ideal maternal self. The current study explored how the transition into motherhood changes the self-concept and subsequently impact the categorization of information for family members in postpartum mothers. In two experiments, results consistently revealed biases towards the self and close kin (one’s baby and mother) regardless of stimulus type (names in Experiment 1, faces in Experiment 2) and response category (self/other, family/non-family, familiar/non-familiar). A family bias (for baby and mother) over friend was observed in the family/non-family but not in the familiar/non-familiar categorization task, suggesting that motherhood may enhance the boundary between family and non-family to facilitate the processing of family-related information.

2020 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-50
Sergey R. Kravtsov

This article discusses the construction of a Jewish aristocratic identity through art collecting and patronage, in parallel with other “aristocratic” activities and lifestyles. The focus is a particular Galican family ennobled by Franz Joseph I in 1881. The family’s ambitions and achievements are known from a memoir by Artur Lilien-Brzozdowiecki (1890, Lviv-1958, London), who was a great-great-grandson of the community head Rachmiel von Mises (1800-1891), a distant cousin of the artist Moses Ephraim Lilien (1874-1925), and a grandson of the banker Ignacy Lilien, who financed Moses Ephraim’s education. The article considers the self-construction of the family members as art connoisseurs and artists. These included the banker, industrialist, artist, and art collector Maurycy Nierenstein (1840-1917); painter Helene von Mises (1883-1942); architect Marya Lilien (1900-1998); and economist, lawyer, army officer, and collector Artur Lilien-Brzozdowiecki.

2002 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 200-209 ◽  
Karin T. Kirchhoff ◽  
Lee Walker ◽  
Ann Hutton ◽  
Vicki Spuhler ◽  
Beth Vaughan Cole ◽  

• Background Lack of communication from healthcare providers contributes to the anxiety and distress reported by patients’ families after a patient’s death in the intensive care unit.• Objective To obtain a detailed picture of the experiences of family members during the hospitalization and death of a loved one in the intensive care unit.• Methods A qualitative study with 4 focus groups was used. All eligible family members from 8 intensive care units were contacted by telephone; 8 members agreed to participate.• Results The experiences of the family members resembled a vortex: a downward spiral of prognoses, difficult decisions, feelings of inadequacy, and eventual loss despite the members’ best efforts, and perhaps no good-byes. Communication, or its lack, was a consistent theme. The participants relied on nurses to keep informed about the patients’ condition and reactions. Although some participants were satisfied with this information, they wished for more detailed explanations of procedures and consequences. Those family members who thought that the best possible outcome had been achieved had had a physician available to them, options for treatment presented and discussed, and family decisions honored.• Conclusions Uncertainty about the prognosis of the patient, decisions that families make before a terminal condition, what to expect during dying, and the extent of a patient’s suffering pervade families’ end-of-life experiences in the intensive care unit. Families’ information about the patient is often lacking or inadequate. The best antidote for families’ uncertainty is effective communication.

2017 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 167-178
Pomarida Simbolon Simbolon

Stroke is a symptom that occurs due to impaired blood circulation in the brain. Stroke diseases has the third death sequence in the world after heart disease and cancer. Good family support is needed in improving self-concept for stroke patients. This research which aims to determine the relationship of family support with self-concept in patients with stroke in Santa Elisabeth Hospital Medan. The design used in research was analytic survey design using the “cross-sectional” with a sample of 34 respondents and the sampling technique is purposive sampling. The data were collected by questionnaires and held in April 2016. Data analysis using chi-square test with significance level of 5%. Results of the study revealed that good family support (55,9%) and negative self-concept (65,6%). The result of statistical test family support with self-concept value p=0,004 (p<0,05) It means there was significant relationship the family support with self-concept in stroke patients in Santa Elisabeth Hospital Medan. It was expected to nurses improve service to patients, motivate and assistsick family members and nurses work with the famiies in maintaining self concept patients. As for the family was expected to pay attention to patients health condition, motivate sick family members by giving motivation to recover, and assisting the patient in the process of healing.

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 151-156
Adi Saputra ◽  

The purpose of the current study is to determine how self-concept forms in adolescents through inculcating Islamic values. Literature study from various sources, including abstracts of scientific writing results, journal reviews published between 2010-2018 and books related to this article, was employed as the research method. The self-concept is all our perceptions about our self-aspects,  such as physical aspect, social aspect, and psychological aspect, which are based on our experiences and interactions with other people. The conclusion of this study is that family support plays a very significant role in the formation self-concepts in adolescents, where families that establish good parent-child communication can nurture positive self-concepts in their children. The self-concept develops gradually and is influenced by the closest circle like the people in the family and the views of the adolescents about themselves. In the process of forming the self-concept in adolescents, it is indispensable to instill Islamic values. With the inculcation of Islamic values, positive self-concepts can be formed in the adolescents' minds. The results of this study indicate that adolescents who are implanted with Islamic values ​​tend to have positive self-concepts, compared to adolescents whose self-concepts tend to be negative due to the lack Islamic values inculcation during the self-concept formation progress.

2011 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-19
Akmala Hadita

Some problems are often faced in educating children to be self-reliant. On the other hand independency is much required in their future life. This research conducted in RSPA Cisurupan, Garut, in April 2010 until April 2011, aimed at developing an integrated training model to improve function and social roles of the children in the independency. Employing research and development design with planning, preparation, implementation and maintaining, as well as evaluation, the model development involved the parents or the family members and the children. The research produced the Integrated Training Model to Improve the Function and Social Roles of the Children in Developing the Self-reliance, which had been validated in this research.

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 96-119
Salim Odeh ◽  
Iyad Abu Bakr

This study is aimed to identify the self-concept and its relation with psychological adaption in the delinquent juvenile, who are registered in the ministry of social development, and the impact of some demographical variants (age, and monthly income), on the self-conception and psychological adaption on them, from the delinquent juvenile who are registered in the ministry of social development point of view، in Ramallah and Tubas governorates. The study sample consists of all juvenile who are registered in the ministry of social development in 2016, whose number is 2460 delinquent juvenile, among them a clustered and Random sample which has been chosen from Ramallah and Tubas and consist of 334 delinquent juvenile. The researchers has used the descriptive method, due to its suitable way to the study using the tools which has been developed by the researcher, they are; The self-concept and the psychological self-adaption, and after the collection of data it was analysed, and the result is as follow: The self-conception of the delinquent juvenile who are registered in the ministry of social development was moderate on the total level of self-concept. The study indicates that the level of psychological adaption of the delinquent juvenile who are registered in the ministry of social development was moderate. The results show a positive conected relation with statistical indication between the self-concept and the psychological adaption, which means the increase in self-concept results an increase in the psychological adaption in the delinquent juvenile, although relation level between self-conception and psychological adaption equal 53.3%.  The study results show statistical differences between the delinquent juvenile sample members who are registered in the ministry of social development, in relation to self-concept by age, the differences average were tended to favour age group between 15-18 years old.  The study results show that there is a statistical differences among the study members who are registered in the ministry of social development in the fields of ( self-concept and psychological adaption) in relation to the family income, the study results show that the differences in relation to family income were in favour of the family with high income, which means that as much the income increases the self-concept increases in the delinquent juvenile,  in addition to that the increase of income will increase the psychological adaption in the delinquent juvenile in both fields (self-conception and the self-adaption) were in favour of the family with high income more than that of law income .

2018 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-31
Julianto Julianto Laia

Background : Stroke is a health issue and needs spesial attention. Based on the basic health research, stroke is a major couse of death and disability in almost all hospitals in indonesia. Organizations stroke world accouting for nearly 85% of people who have the risk factors can prevent a stroke if aware of and andress theserisk factors early on. The role of the family will help the patient care process to make the best possible stroke patients can do the activity again while not fully back to normal as before the stroke. The concept of human beings have a role in the fulfillment of basic needs. A positive self concept gives meaning and unity to someone. Healthy concept generates positive feelings toward themselves. The Objectiveof this research : To determine the relationship role of the family in the fulfillment of basic human needs with the self-concept among post stroke patients in the Sindang Barang Bogor. The Methods : This study used a descriptive analytical design and cross sectional approach. The technique used in this research is total sampling with the number of sample 46 respondents. The collection of data obtained through questionnaires. The Results : Based on the analysis of the relationship between the role of the family with self-concept of 46 respondents (67,4%) had the role of a passive family with poor self-concept as much as 20 respondents ( 43,5 %). The Results of statistical test p value = 0,016 which means p value < 0,05 means Ho rejected shows that there is a significant relationship between relationship role of the family in the fulfillment of basic human needs with the self concept post stroke patients.

2009 ◽  
Vol 24 (S1) ◽  
pp. 1-1
G. Canta

The research main goal is to study patients diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, more specifically the impact of projective distortion in the self description, and the self-concept disturbance, personality traits and family dynamics, also evaluating the influence of mental representations from both the patient and parents.It is essential to describe the semiology and phenomenology of Paranoid Schizophrenia in adults, the mental representations of these patients and their family psychodynamics. Special attention will be given to self-concept and the representation of family interactions, which several investigations mention as very relevant in Schizophrenia.Projective Distortion is considered to be the result of the interplay of defence mechanisms inside family relationships, conceptualized as an interactional and interpersonal phenomenon.Although there are some studies on the disturbances of self-concept in patients with Paranoid Schizophrenia, it has not been usual to simultaneously analyse both the Projective Distortion operating in the family and its impact on the patient mental representations, something that can be very relevant to therapeutic interventions.There will be presented 5 case studies, using interviews with patients diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia and their parents. These interviews will be conducted and analyzed using the Grounded Theory Method. That analysis aims to isolate significant conceptual categories, and to build a theoretical model which allows the understanding of Projective Distortion.

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