scholarly journals Analisis Efektivitas Biaya Penggunaan Obat Antivirus Oseltamivir dan Favipiravir pada Pasien Covid-19 Derajat Sedang di Rumah Sakit Sentra Medika Cisalak Depok

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 133
Arif Rahmandani ◽  
Prih Sarnianto ◽  
Yusi Anggriani ◽  
Fredrick Dermawan Purba

Analisis Efektivitas biaya (CEA) merupakan metode farmakoekonomi yang digambarkan dalam rasio biaya-efektivitas agar dapat membantu pengambilan keputusan dalam memilih obat yang efektif secara manfaat dan biaya. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukkan terapi yang lebih cost-effective antara penggunaan Oseltamivir dan Favipiravir pada pasien Covid-19 derajat sedang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penlitian cross sectional dengan pengumpulan data secara prospektif dan observational non eksperimental yang merupakan analisa deskriptif kuantitatif menurut perspektif pasien untuk memperoleh efektifitas biaya. Sampel pada penelitian ini terdiri dari 108 pasien yaitu 50 pasien yang menggunakan antivirus Oseltamivir dan 58 pasien menggunakan antivirus Favipiravir. Hasil penelitian diperoleh dari parameter efektivitas perbaikan nilai C-Reaktif Protein (CRP) pasien yang menggunakan Oseltamivir rata-rata mengalami perbaikan nilai CRP 18.52 mg/L tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan dengan pasien yang menggunakan antivirus Favipiravir rata-rata mengalami perbaikan nilai CRP 19.36 mg/L. sedangkan dari parameter Length of Stay (LOS) pasien yang menggunakan Oseltamivir rata-rata dirawat inap selama 7.42 hari lebih cepat dibandingkan pasien yang menggunakan antivirus Favipiravir 9.21 hari, untuk rerata biaya total perawatan pasien yang menggunakan antivirus Oseltamivir sebesar Rp32.794.002,- lebih kecil dibandingkan rerata biaya total perawatan pasien yang menggunakan antivirus Favipiravir Rp42.504.281,- sehingga didapat nilai CER Oseltamivr Rp4.419.677,- lebih kecil dibandingkan nilai CER Favipiravir Rp4.615.014,- oleh karena itu penggunaan obat yang lebih cost-effective yaitu antivirus Oseltamivir dibandingkan Favipiravir.

Geriatrics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Christopher Fang ◽  
Andrew Hagar ◽  
Matthew Gordon ◽  
Carl T. Talmo ◽  
David A. Mattingly ◽  

The proportion of patients over the age of 90 years continues to grow, and the anticipated demand for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in this population is expected to rise concomitantly. As the country shifts to alternative reimbursement models, data regarding hospital expenses is needed for accurate risk-adjusted stratification. The aim of this study was to compare total in-hospital costs following primary TJA in octogenarians and nonagenarians, and to determine the primary drivers of cost. This was a retrospective analysis from a single institution in the U.S. We used time-drive activity-based costing (TDABC) to capture granular total hospital costs for each patient. 889 TJA’s were included in the study, with 841 octogenarians and 48 nonagenarians. Nonagenarians were more likely to undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) (70.8% vs. 42.4%; p < 0.0001), had higher ASA classification (2.6 vs. 2.4; p = 0.049), and were more often privately insured (35.4% vs. 27.8%; p = 0.0001) as compared to octogenarians. Nonagenarians were more often discharged to skilled nursing facilities (56.2% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.0011), experienced longer operating room (OR) time (142 vs. 133; p = 0.0201) and length of stay (3.7 vs. 3.1; p = 0.0003), and had higher implant and total in-hospital costs (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001). Multivariate linear regression showed implant cost (0.700; p < 0.0001), length of stay (0.546; p < 0.0001), and OR time (0.288; p < 0.0001) to be the strongest associations with overall costs. Primary TJA for nonagenarians was more expensive than octogenarians. Targeting implant costs, length of stay, and OR time can reduce costs for nonagenarians in order to provide cost-effective value-based care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
Makeda Sinaga ◽  
Melese Sinaga Teshome ◽  
Tilhun Yemane ◽  
Elsah Tegene ◽  
David Lindtsrom ◽  

Abstract Background Application of advanced body composition measurement methods is not practical in developing countries context due to cost and unavailability of facilities. This study generated ethnic specific body fat percent prediction equation for Ethiopian adults using appropriate data. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried ifrom February to April 2015 among 704 randomly selected adult employees of Jimma University. Ethnic specific Ethiopian body fat percent (BF%) prediction equation was developed using a multivariable linear regression model with measured BF% as dependent variable and age, sex, and body mass index as predictor variables. Agreement between fat percent measured using air displacement plethysmography and body fat percent estimated using Caucasian prediction equations was determined using Bland Altman plot. Results Comparison of ADP measured and predicted BF% showed that Caucasian prediction equation underestimated body fat percent among Ethiopian adults by 6.78% (P < 0.0001). This finding is consistent across all age groups and ethnicities in both sexes. Bland Altman plot did not show agreement between ADP and Caucasian prediction equation (mean difference = 6.7825) and some of the points are outside 95% confidence interval. The caucasian prediction equation significantly underestimates body fat percent in Ethiopian adults, which is consistent across all ethnic groups in the sample. The study developed Ethnic specific BF% prediction equations for Ethiopian adults. Conclusion The Caucasian prediction equation significantly underestimates body fat percent among Ethiopian adults regardless of ethnicity. Ethiopian ethnic-specific prediction equation can be used as a very simple, cheap, and cost-effective alternative for estimating body fat percent among Ethiopian adults for health care provision in the prevention of obesity and related morbidities and for research purposes.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. e050629
Vanessa W Lim ◽  
Hwee Lin Wee ◽  
Phoebe Lee ◽  
Yijun Lin ◽  
Yi Roe Tan ◽  

ObjectivesWHO recommends that low burden countries consider systematic screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in migrants from high incidence countries. We aimed to determine LTBI prevalence and risk factors and evaluate cost-effectiveness of screening and treating LTBI in migrants to Singapore from a government payer perspective.DesignCross-sectional study and cost-effectiveness analysis.SettingMigrants in Singapore.Participants3618 migrants who were between 20 and 50 years old, have not worked in Singapore previously and stayed in Singapore for less than a year were recruited.Primary and secondary outcome measuresCosts, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), threshold length of stay, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), cost per active TB case averted.ResultsOf 3584 migrants surveyed, 20.4% had positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results, with the highest positivity in Filipinos (33.2%). Higher LTBI prevalence was significantly associated with age, marital status and past TB exposure. The cost-effectiveness model projected an ICER of S$57 116 per QALY and S$12 422 per active TB case averted for screening and treating LTBI with 3 months once weekly isoniazid and rifapentine combination regimen treatment compared with no screening over a 50-year time horizon. ICER was most sensitive to the cohort’s length of stay in Singapore, yearly disease progression rates from LTBI to active TB, followed by the cost of IGRA testing.ConclusionsFor LTBI screening and treatment of migrants to be cost-effective, migrants from high burden countries would have to stay in Singapore for ~50 years. Risk-stratified approaches based on projected length of stay and country of origin and/or age group can be considered.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-6
D. W. A. Leno ◽  
F. D. Diallo ◽  
A. Delamou ◽  
F. D. Komano ◽  
M. Magassouba ◽  

Aim. To assess feasibility of integrating family planning counselling into mass screening for cervical cancer in Guinea. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a month in Guinea regional capital cities. The targeted population comprised women aged 15 to 49 years. Nearly 4000 women were expected for the screening campaigns that utilized VIA and VIL methods with confirmation of positive tests through biopsy. A local treatment was immediately performed when the patient was eligible. Results. Overall 5673 women aged 15 to 60 years were received, a surplus of 42% of the expected population. 92.3% of women were aged 15–49 years and 90.1% were 25–49 years. Long-acting methods were the most utilized (89.2% of family planning users). 154 precancerous and cancerous lesions were screened, a global positivity rate of 2.7%. Conclusion. Integration of counselling and family planning services provision during cervical cancer mass screening is a feasible strategy. A cost-effective analysis of this approach would help a better planning of future campaigns and its replication in other contexts.

Hypertension ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (Suppl_1) ◽  
Shreya Srivastava ◽  
Bhargav Vemulapalli ◽  
Alexis K Okoh ◽  
John Kassotis

Introduction: Racial, gender and lower socioeconomic status have been shown to negatively impact the delivery of care. How this impacts the management of hypertensive crisis (HC) remains unclear. Objective: Identify disparities on admission frequency and length of stay (LOS) among those presenting with HC, as a function of household income. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2016 ED visits and supplemental Inpatient data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Median household income quartiles were established. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate odds of admission in each income quartile. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict LOS. Results: After applying sample weighting, the total number of ED visits was 33,728 with 25442, 6906, and 1380 visits for hypertensive urgency (HU), emergency (HE) and unspecified crisis, respectively. There were 13191, 8889, 6401, 5247 visits in the (1 st ) lowest, 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th (highest) income quartiles, respectively. The median age was 61 and 58 years for HU and HE, respectively. The most common comorbidity was chronic kidney disease. Individuals with the highest income, had a lower odds of admission compared to the lowest quartile [Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22,0.74] ( Figure 1a ). There was a significant linear association between income quartile and LOS across all HC and HE [beta coefficient: 0.411, 0.407 p value = 0.015, 0.019] ( Figure 1b ). Conclusions: In this study, patients with lower income were more likely to be admitted, while those with higher income exhibited a longer LOS. Clinicians must be made aware these disparities to ensure the equitable delivery of care.

2021 ◽  
Sadia Masood ◽  
Zanaib Samad ◽  
Sarah Nadeem ◽  
Unzela Ghulam

BACKGROUND Telemedicine is utilized to deliver health care services remotely. Recently, it is well established due to pandemics because it can help the patients get required supportive care while minimizing their hospital exposure. In the future, it will continue to be used as a convenient, cost-effective patient care modality. OBJECTIVE The objectives were to identify physicians' challenges during teleconsultations and recognize the opportunities and strengths of this modality during the pandemic in a lower-income country. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. The self-made questionnaire was filled through an online medium and responses were recorded on a five-point Likert scale. RESULTS A total of 83 participants were enrolled in this study. Most of them were Associate professors (29.8%), Assistant professors (26.2%), the ratio of the females was (52.4%) greater than males (,47.6%). 46 (54.8%) have laid between the age group 30-40 years. Pediatricians and senior instructors faced more difficulty in using telemedicine. The ones having clinical experience of fewer than 15 years or categorized in the age of 50-60 years faced challenges while using this modality. CONCLUSIONS During the current pandemic, situation telemedicine is the only glimmer of light to provide better quality health care. Telemedicine is an innovative strategy and it is important to understand the perception of physicians about it. Incomplete and inadequate infrastructure and attitude of the physicians is the main obstacle toward successful implementation of telemedicine. Successful installation and deployment of this technology require a complete grasp of the process among physicians.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 74
Nifa Viranda Amelia

Selama pasien dirawat di ruang Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU), keluarga pasien mengalami kesulitan dan ketidakberdayaan. Bagi keluarga pasien, ruang rawat intensif merupakan tempat yang tidak menyenangkan.  Keluarga masuk dalam kondisi yang tidak terduga dan dibutuhkan ketepatan keluarga dalam mengambil keputusan guna keberlangsungan hidup terkait kondisi pasien yang membutuhkan penanganan.Lama perawatan pasien di ruang ICCU sangat beragam.  Lama rawat pasien ICCU berdampak langsung terhadap kualitas hidup pasien dan keluarga, risiko terjadinya di masa depan, dan besarnya pembiayaan dampak dari perawatan. Selama keluarga mendampingi perawatan pasien di ruang ICCU, keluarga akan mengalami berbagai reaksi emosional seperti kecemasan. Tujuan: Mengetahui hubungan lama hari rawat dengan tingkat kecemasan keluarga pasien di ruang ICCU. Metode: Korelasi dengan pendekatan cross sectional dengan sampel 42 responden di ruang ICCU, yang dipilih dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Instrumen penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner HARS.  Data dianalisis dengan uji korelasi Spearman. Hasil: Lama hari rawat pasien rata-rata 3,14 hari.  Kecemasan keluarga pasien ICCU paling banyak berada pada tingkat kecemasan berat (33,3%). Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara lama hari rawat dengan tingkat kecemasan keluarga pasien (p=0,0003) dengan keeratan hubungan yang sedang (r=0,532) di ruang ICCU. Diskusi: Semakin lama pasien dirawat di ruang ICCU maka semakin tinggi tingkat kecemasan yang dirasakan keluarga pasien karena kondisi pasien yang tidak stabil ataupun semakin parah. Kesimpulan: Keluarga pasien perlu diberikan informasi dan edukasi yang jelas terkait kondisi pasien dalam sehari atau saat ada perburukan kondisi.Kata kunci: kecemasan, keluarga, lama hari rawat, perawatan intensif, perawatan kritis. Correlation Between Length of Stay and Anxiety Levels of Patients’ Family in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit Room ABSTRACTWhile a patient is being treated in the Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU), the patient's family experiences difficulties and helplessness. For the patient's family, the intensive care unit is an unpleasant place. The family enters into unexpected conditions and is required to make proper decisions for survival related to patient conditions. The patient's length of stay in the ICCU room is very diverse. The length of stay of ICCU patients directly impacts patients' quality of life and their families, the risk of future incidence, and the extent of the treatment cost. While the family accompanies the patient treated in the ICCU room, the family will experience various emotional reactions such as anxiety. Objective: To reveal the correlation between length of stay and the anxiety levels of the patient’s family in the ICCU room. Methods: Correlation with cross-sectional approach with a sample of 42 respondents in the ICCU room, who were selected using a purposive sampling method. The research instrument used the HARS questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Results: The average length of the patient's stay was 3.14 days. Family anxiety of ICCU patients was mostly at the level of severe anxiety (33.3%). There was a significant correlation between length of stay and anxiety levels of the patient’s family (p=0.0003) with a moderate correlation coefficient (r=0.532) in the ICCU room. Discussion: The longer the patient is treated in the ICCU room, the higher the anxiety level felt by the patient’s family due to the patient's unstable or worsened condition. Conclusion: Clear information and education should be given to the patient's family regarding the patient's condition within one day or when the condition worsens.Keywords: anxiety, family, length of stay, intensive care, critical care

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Raheli Misiko Mukhwana ◽  
Margaret N Keraka ◽  
Meshack Onyambu

Introduction/Aims Focused antenatal care provides individualised counselling, targeted assessment and safe, cost effective, evidence-based intervention. It has been implemented in developing countries as a strategy to improve maternal health. This study aimed to investigate sociodemographic factors associated with maternal complications in selected public county hospitals in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a sample of 397 postnatal women who were given a questionnaire, with sections on their sociodemographic and health characteristics. Data analysis was done using the Chi Square test to determine the association between study variables, with P<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The study found that 30% of respondents reported a maternal complication during their current delivery outcome. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with maternal complications were age (P=0.002), occupation (P=0.001) and income (P=0.011). The health factors associated with occurrence of maternal complications were number of deliveries (P=0.001) and mode of delivery (P=0.001). Conclusions A number of factors were found to be significantly associated with maternal outcomes, including age and occupation. Further studies to determine why young women do not use focused antenatal care are necessary, as this would help reduce the incidence of birth-associated complications.

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