scholarly journals San Blas Rebellion of 1925

Elena Kargovskaia ◽  
Viktoriia Kuznetsova

This article is dedicated to the events that received the name of Guna Revolution and led to the autonomy of Comarca Guna Yala that belongs to the Republic of Panama. Guna Indians are one of the few peoples of the American Continent who were able to preserve integrity of their land, their authenticity, traditions, culture and beliefs, although it took them enormous efforts. The goal of this research consists in examination of causes that led to the rebellion, as well as its consequences for the Guna people. The authors of attempt to reconstruct the events and determine the crucial factor that affected successful outcome of the revolt. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the history of Guna Indians of the Republic of Panama alongside the events related to their struggle for the autonomy and self-identification did not receive due coverage within the Russian scientific publications. In the current era of globalization, which blurs the boundaries and differences, the preservation of authenticity and integrity of small, and often large, ethnic groups is more relevant than ever. One of the authors was able to visit Comarca Guna Yala and get acquainted with the lifestyle, culture and traditions of its inhabitants, as well as listen to their perspective on the historical events of 1925, which Guna Indians carefully preserve in their folk tradition of chants that sound on the sessions of Guna General Congress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-68
Gulmira Mussagulova ◽  
Zulfiya Kassimova

The article is devoted to the consideration and study of the creativity of the most prominent representatives of the musical art of national ethnic groups, the role of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, the identification of various criteria for the relationship of ethnic groups living in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the peculiarities of their life, way of life, spheres of life, their relationship and views on the modern State, created by the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Nursultan Nazarbayev. The core of the projects completed in the period from 2012 to 2017 includes not only historical facts and materials found from the State Archives, Central Scientific Library and the National Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, but also an overview of active participation in many events related to the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, to the 20th and 25th anniversaries of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, associated with the considered ethnocultural centers and representatives of certain ethnic groups. Through the media, participation in international scientific and practical conferences, previously unknown facts of the studied ethnic groups were highlighted, and their relationship with the main population of the republic, their contribution to the multinational culture of Kazakhstan, which in turn confirms the prudent, orderly, and wise policy of Elbasy (The Head of the State). The authors use the following methods in the study: historical-chronological, source study, analytical, comparative, and interviewing. Since 2012, in Kazakh musicology, the musical heritage of ethnic groups inhabiting Kazakhstan has been studied. A unique opportunity for a full-fledged study of their work is presented thanks to the activities of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan and systematic state policy, under the leadership of the First President. In 2017, the second book, entitled "The Historical Significance of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan in Interethnic Cultural Integration", was published, which became a fruitful result of the research project in 2015–2017. This book is a kind of continuation of the series, which began in the previous collective monograph "The Musical Art of the People of Kazakhstan", which was published at the end of 2014 and has undergone extensive testing not only among professionals, but also among fans of the musical culture of multinational Kazakhstan. Such research projects, which were not previously carried out in the domestic humanitarian science, are significant and in demand, since before their appearance in domestic musicology there were only separate reports on the activities of cultural centers, articles in the media and on Internet sites, a brief analysis of the work of specific masters in publications devoted to the study of the history of musical art of numerous national cultures. They give only fragmentary ideas about the art of the ethnic groups in question. The relevance and insufficient elaboration of these problems served as the basis for the study "The historical significance of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan in interethnic cultural integration", carried out by the Department of Musicology of the M. Auezov Institute of Literature and Art of the Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The implementation of such a complex and significant topic for the national musical art, coverage of the activities of large cultural centers of different ethnic groups, and much more makes it possible to determine the contribution of each of them to the history of Kazakhstan's development and outline ways to preserve the traditional folklore heritage and identity. In this regard, these projects are relevant and socially and politically significant at the state level.

2018 ◽  
Vol 24 ◽  
pp. 101-126
Josip Jagodar

Vukovar is the city in the East Croatia on the border with the Republic of Serbia. In the paper I attempt to show the development of the city, the composition of its population and the relationships between ethnic groups from establishing of Vukovar until the beginning of the Homeland war in 1991. The paper presents the history of the Croat majority and the minorities which were, and which are, present in the city: the Germans, Hungarians, Serbs, Rusyns, Ukrainians, Yews and the Slovaks. From the beginning Vukovar was a multicultural, multiethnic and multiconfessional city thanks to migrations which were present since its establishing, in which the Croats were the majority. After the WWI a large number of Serbs immigrated into this area. The political situation gave them benefits which earlier belonged to Germans and Hungarians. They gained power to rule the city. It became the source of constant tensions between the Serbian and Croatian population in the period of Yugoslavia (1918-1941) and during the WWII (1941-1944). Although the communist Yugoslav authorities were trying to pacify interethnic differences, the escalation of nationalisms brought about the siege and the capture of Vukovar in 1991 by the Serbian troops.

2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 416-434
Fauzia Z. Razhepaeva ◽  

The history of the settlement of the Kazakhstan territory by Tatars took place over several centuries. At present, they are among the eight most numerous ethnic groups of the republic. Over the years of residence on the Kazakh land, the demographic behavior of Tatars constantly changed. In this regard, the author of the article sought to show the dynamics of the number and location of the Tatar diaspora in Kazakhstan, as well as the features of their intra-republican distribution over a twenty-year period. Considering the demographic characteristics of the Tatars in Kazakhstan, the main focus was made on the census of 1989, 1999, and 2009, the analysis of which showed that since the 80s of the 20th century, the growth rate of Tatars has slowed significantly; while in the 90s of 20th and early 21st centuries, there is a noticeable reduction in the Tatar population. The reasons for this were, first of all, the external migration of Tatars, a decrease in birth rate and an increase in mortality among them. During 1989–2009, Tatars steadily occupied the sixth place in their numbers among the other most numerous ethnic groups of the republic. The region most populated by the Tatars in the period between the three censuses of 1989, 1999, and 2009 was the Karaganda Region, the least number of Tatars lived in Mangistau – 0.3% and Kyzylorda – 0.3%. Tatars are one of the most urbanized ethnic groups in Kazakhstan. In the urban population, they occupy the 5th place in their number. Over 10% of the Tatars live in rural areas of Almaty, Kostanay, Akmola, and South Kazakhstan regions. Representatives of the ethnic group under discussion reside in virtually all regions of Kazakhstan. The resettlement of Tatars in these regions of the republic was primarily influenced by the socio-economic situation, professional structure, high educational level, culture and lifestyle of the Tatar diaspora representatives.

Zainab Magomedovna Alieva

This article is dedicated to the analysis of structural models of toponyms in Chamalal language. Current realities are such that examination of toponymic system of any region deserves special attention. Research of the system must be based on studying the characteristic toponymic structures, which prompts the onomatologists to systematize them in accordance with structural peculiarities. Structural analysis of toponyms with determination of toponymic models and affixes is framework and a so-called approach towards further research. The subject of this research is the toponymy of non-written Chamalal language of the Republic of Dagestan. The goal consists in the analysis of structural patterns of isolated Chanalal toponyms of the rural localities of Upper and Lower Gavkari, Gigatli, Gadiri of Tsumadinsky District of Dagestan. The article involves field material of the author Z. M. Alieva acquired during the expeditions of 2018-2020). The novelty lies in the fact that this article is first to carry out a structural analysis of toponymic units of Chamalal language. Toponymic material is subjected to quantitative characterization the author analyzes its different in structure geographical names, and determines separate word-forming elements. The study of toponyms remains one of the paramount tasks of the national (including Dagestani) and foreign linguistics, which defines relevance of the selected topic. This branch of linguistics is important in multiple areas of science: solution of linguistic tasks, questions of interaction of ethnic groups and their cultures, problems of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the peoples.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 4-26
Marcela Sulženko ◽  
Luboš Kokeš

The history of Czechoslovak private libraries reflected great historical events, specifically in the change of ownership between 1918 and 1945/1954. The biggest change came after the Second World War, when the highest state officials decided to punish war criminals. In general, all Germans were labelled as enemies of the republic and were to bear collective guilt for starting the war. Their punishment included, among other things, the loss of property, which also concerned their libraries. This study focuses on the state administration dealing with such property.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 211-229
Anastasia Anatolievna Aksenova

The article analyzes the history of the formation of the Egyptian collection of the National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan during the 19th and 20th centuries. Based on the materials of the archives of the city of Kazan, the national museum, as well as with the involvement of other scientific publications in the context of the museology in Kazan and the development of Russian Egyptology as a science, the four main stages of the formation of the archaeological fund, as well as the current state of the collection of the ancient Egyptian heritage, are examined and analyzed. An analysis of each stage allows the reconstruction of the evolution of Egyptology as a science, and oriental studies in general, in the regions of Russia. This collection of the National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan is one of the largest domestic collections of Egyptian culture, which has not been exhibited since the beginning of the 20th century. In this context, cataloging and studying the formation of a collection is necessary for its preservation as a unique heritage. The author of the article came to the conclusion about the importance of Kazan University in the development of the archaeological foundation of the National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan, the role of the collected Egyptian materials in the development of Russian Egyptology and Oriental studies in the 19th century.

2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 274-285
Mariam Ashotovna Dashyan ◽  
Andrey A. Kudelin

This article is an overview of the state stance and attitude towards minorities throughout history of the republic of Turkey. It represents the official approach of the republic towards ethnic and religious groups. Though due to actions of the Ottoman Empire, the number of non-Turks in the republic of Turkey already was incomparably small, however their existence could not be ignored. Still Turkey recognizes only three minorities (Greeks, Armenians, and Jews) and for decades adopted the strategy of regarding all minority persons other than Greeks, Armenians, and Jews as Turks. Ethnic variety was considered a threat to territorial integrity of Turkey. Every action was directed to create a unitary nation-state suppressing ethnic identities of non-Turks. In this article state policy towards ethnic groups in the republic of Turkey is examined from the perspective of the Lausanne Treaty provisions and legislative regulations regarding the status and rights of minorities showing to what extent authorities have followed them and rising the controversial points minority representatives face in exercising their rights.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 042-052
Mirzokhid Rakhimov ◽  
Sadriddin Rakhimov

The formation and disintegration of the U.S.S.R. was one of the vital historical events of the 20th century. The Central Asian republics were established by the Soviet government in the 1920s and 1930s as a result of the national and territorial state delimitation, and the borders between them were provisional. As the republics obtained political independence, the process of defining state borders between the new sovereign countries began. This process turned out to be difficult for Uzbekistan, among others, but the republic was mostly able to mutually resolve interstate borders issues based on “uti possidetis.”

Garik Atanesyan ◽  
Gayane Hakobyan

The object of this research is the problems of preservation of ethnic identity of the Belarusian diaspora in Armenia during Soviet and post-Soviet period. Interethnic families comprise the current Belarusian community in Armenia. These scattered ethnic groups are the soft target for assimilation processes in the predominantly conservative and monoethnic regions of Armenia. The article presents a brief overview on the history of Belarusian diaspora of Yerevan and Belarusian ethnic groups in the Armenian regions since its formation until the present. Certain backbone characteristics of the concept of diaspora are described. The novelty consists in the division of Belarusian diaspora of Armenia into Belarusian diaspora of Yerevan and ethnic groups of the regions of the Republic of Armenia. A comparative analysis of these fundamentally different communities allowed better understanding the problems that threaten the existence of Belarusian diaspora in Armenia. Analysis is conducted on the basic factors of ethnic identity of the Belarusian diaspora in Armenia. The article reviews the factors that contribute to assimilation and ethnic transformation of Belarusian ethnic groups of the Republic of Armenia and the diaspora of Yerevan. In Yerevan, Belarusian ethnic identifiers are being replaced by the Russians, while in rural areas of Armenia even Russian indicators are being dislodged by the local ethnic components, which can result in fatal assimilation.

2018 ◽  
Vol 299 (1) ◽  
pp. 130-153
Krystyna Stasiewicz

The Bishop of Warmia, Ignacy Krasicki, was involved in politics as a senator of the Republic and president of Prussian lands. His period of office (1766–1795) coincided with dramatic historical events, during which he had to make difficult choices. This was the case in 1767, the year of the dissident confederation and the Repninowski Parliament (Sejm). Krasicki had another dilemma in March 1768 – what position to take towards the Bar Confed�erates. Contrary to the expectations of King Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Russian ambassador, Repnina stood as the only senator who defended the Confederates. They intended to acquire XBW. Krasicki wanted to be neutral and in 1769 he left for France. The situation in Warmia was difficult. The bishop struggled with the Prussian threat and was alone in his actions. In the history of the state, Warmia and XBW, the first partition of Poland tragically took place in 1772. Warmia was incorporated into Prussia and the bishop became a Prussian subject. Krasicki was, however, well�versed in domestic matters. In his writings, he found psychological support and the opportunity to engage in politics. The author discusses several patriotic works in a synthetic way: The Tomb of Freedom of Poland, Hymn to the Love of the Homeland, a poem with inc. He Carried the Moment What Time Commanded, Song for the 3rd of May. She also draws attention to the novel Mr. Podstoli, praised by the king, in which the writer included his thoughts on social and political matters. To this day, Krasicki intrigues us with his smile and subdued behavior. In letters to a friend, G. Ghigiotti, he writes about he found a cure for stress.

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