Traumatic macroglossia is an extremely rare condition characterized by a sudden edematous swelling of the tongue due to trauma. We report a rare case of traumatic macroglossia in a 37-year-old male with known trisomy 21 and epilepsy who presented to the emergency room with a huge protruded tongue due to aggressive behavior and a history of multiple tongue tractions, leading to sudden severe tongue swelling without any respiratory distress symptoms. The examination was unremarkable; fixable nasolaryngoscopy relieved bilateral vocal cord movement, and there was no laryngeal edema. The patient was managed immediately by endotracheal intubation to secure the airway, and corticosteroids were used to diminish and stop the tongue swelling. We describe the clinical management for such patients, highlighting the different causes of traumatic macroglossia. A few cases have been reported in the literature, but this is the first case to report self-induced traumatic macroglossia in a seizure-free patient managed successfully by endotracheal intubation, corticosteroids, a bite block, and warm wet dressing.
Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), CLL with del(17p), previously treated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and Waldenstršm macroglobulinemia. Cutaneous manifestations including purpuric eruptions have been reported in 8-27% of patients receiving ibrutinib, sometimes resulting in treatment delays or drug discontinuation. Guidelines regarding optimal clinical management have not been established.
We identified patients who developed rash while receiving ibrutinib at our institution. Data were collected through retrospective chart review with IRB approval.
Characteristics of 14 patients (13 CLL, 1 MCL) identified are shown in Table 1. Two distinct purpuric rash subtypes were observed: 1) a non-palpable, largely asymptomatic petechial rash (Figure 1A), and 2) a palpable eruption characterized clinically by pruritic, non-blanching, purpuric papules (Figure 1B).
The non-palpable, petechial rash was observed in 5 patients, all of whom had CLL; 4 patients were receiving single-agent ibrutinib, and 1 received ibrutinib with concurrent rituximab. The median onset of rash from first ibrutinib dose was 80 days, corresponding to the lymphocytosis resolution phase in all patients. The rash was grade 1 (n=4) or grade 2 (n=1) in severity, and was not associated with an allergic history or other mucocutaneous findings. All patients were able to continue receiving ibrutinib without dose interruptions, delays, or skin-directed therapy.
Palpable skin eruptions were observed in 9 patients (8 CLL and 1 MCL); 4 patients were receiving ibrutinib monotherapy, and 5 received ibrutinib in combination with rituximab. The median onset of rash from first ibrutinib dose was 15 days, corresponding to the lymphocytosis phase in 6 of the CLL patients. The rash severity was grade 1 (n=1), grade 2 (n=4), or grade 3 (n=4). Two patients with grade 3 rash had concurrent symptoms concerning for a severe allergic drug reaction, including lip tingling and tongue swelling. Two patients with grade 3 rash underwent biopsy, demonstrating perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils involving the papillary dermis (Figure 1C, 1D). All patients with palpable rash were referred to a dermatologist and received low-potency topical corticosteroids and/or oral antihistamines. In the 5 patients with grade 1-2 rash, these measures yielded rash resolution at a median of 21 days. In the 4 patients with grade 3 rash, these measures were employed and ibrutinib was interrupted until rash resolution, which occurred at a median of 12 days. Ibrutinib rechallenge was successful without rash recurrence in 2 of 4 patients with grade 3 rash. In the other 2 patients, rash recurred on ibrutinib rechallenge (both were patients with concurrent lip tingling and tongue swelling at initial presentation) and required therapy to be interrupted again with initiation of systemic steroids until rash resolution at 2 and 5 days. Both patients were able to resume treatment with ibrutinib with concomitant prednisone taper without rash recurrence.
This single-center study identified 2 presentations of ibrutinib-associated purpuric rash: a non-palpable, petechial eruption and a palpable purpuric rash. The non-palpable rash had a later onset, was mild, and did not require skin-directed therapy or ibrutinib dose adjustment. In contrast, palpable purpuric rash had an earlier onset and varied significantly in clinical presentation and severity; all patients were successfully managed with topical therapy, oral antihistamines, systemic corticosteroids, and temporary interruption of ibrutinib, and all were ultimately able to resume ibrutinib. Our study provides guidance for recognition and management of ibrutinib associated rash, which is important due to its increasing use after approval.
Table 1. Non-palpable (n=5) Palpable (n=9) Female 3 4 Underlying disease CLL MCL 5 0 8 1 Concurrent antiplatelet/anticoagulant 1 3 History of drug allergy 2 5 Baseline WBC, 109 cells/L - median (range) 140 (54-280) 22 (4-470) Rash onset - median, days (IQR) 80 (63-146) 15 (12-64) Rash severity Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 4 1 0 1 4 4 Associated with allergic findings 0 2 Ibrutinib dose modified Temporary interruption Dose reduction Discontinuation 0 0 0 4 1 0 Systemic steroids administered 0 2 Abbreviations: IQR, interquartile range.
Figure 1. Figure 1.
Coutre: Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Honoraria, Research Funding.
Neurogenic paravertebral tumors are uncommon neoplasms arising from neurogenic elements within the thorax. These tumors may be dumbbell shaped, extending into the spinal canal or exclusively paraspinal. Generally encapsulated, they are located in the posterior mediastinum. In this report, we present our experience in the thoracoscopic resection of these tumors, including surgical technique and potential pitfalls.
A retrospective review of patients undergoing endoscopic surgery for paravertebral tumors was undertaken. Patient demographics, charts, operative reports, and pre- and postoperative images were reviewed.
Between 1997 and 2004, 13 patients were treated thoracoscopically for paravertebral tumors in our departments. Our population consisted of four men and nine women. The median age was 44.9 years (range, 29–66 yr). Eight patients presented with pain, dyspnea, cough, and weakness. Five patients had tumors found incidentally. Sizes of the tumors varied from 3 to 9 cm. Final pathology included four neurofibromas, eight schwannomas, and one unclassified granular cell tumor. Gross total resection was achieved endoscopically in all cases. Three patients required a hemilaminectomy for resection of the intraspinal dumbbell component of the tumor during the same operation. The mean operative time was 229.5 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 371.1 ml. Postoperative morbidities included one each of tongue swelling, ulnar neuropathy, and intercostal hyperesthesia. The mean hospital stay was 2.8 days.
Paravertebral tumors in the posterior mediastinum are amenable to endoscopic removal, even in hard to reach locations. Tumors with intraspinal extension can be removed concurrently by performing a hemilaminectomy, followed by thoracoscopy, without the need for a thoracotomy.