A critical evaluation of percussion massage gun devices as a rehabilitation tool focusing on lower limb mobility: A literature review

Jack Martin

Aims In recent years there has been a significant rise in the popularity of muscle gun devices. However, the current research regarding handheld muscle gun devices is unclear. Therefore, this literature review will explore the current literature regarding the effect of muscle gun device on lower limb range of motion, muscle activation, force output and the possibility of reducing delayed onset muscle soreness. Methods Four databases were used along with two academic search engines to search for studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. To fulfil the inclusion criteria studies had to be of a pre-post design with a focus on the use of percussion massage devices on lower limbs. Studies exploring range of motion and muscle force output were of particular interest. Results Thirty-nine included studies were used in this literature review. It was found that handheld percussive massage devices are the most effective method of increasing lower limb range of motion compared to foam rolling and other self-myofascial protocols. The use of handheld percussive massage devices directly after exercise reduces delayed onset muscle soreness. However, there was no reported significant increase in muscle activation or force output following the usage of a handheld percussive massage device. Conclusion The use of muscle gun devices is recommended as part of a structured warm-up pre-exercise due to an increase in range of motion, reduction in perceived muscle soreness whilst having no negative impact on muscle activation and force output. Muscle guns may also be implemented as part of a rehabilitation programme post injury due to their ability to increase range of motion and reduce perceived pain and muscle soreness.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (SPL4) ◽  
pp. 2287-2297
Jatin Prajapat ◽  
Sheetal Kalra ◽  
Joginder Yadav ◽  
Sajjan Pal ◽  
Sonia Pawaria

Muscle soreness appears after high-intensity unaccustomed exercise, especially eccentric exercise and it peaks between 24 and 72 hours post-exercise. It can result in reduced muscle power, range of motion hence impacting athletic performance. Different treatment strategies are available to alleviate symptoms of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). The present study was done to draw a comparison between the effects of foam rolling and vibration therapy on pain, hip range of motion, sprint speed and lower limb power in subjects with exercise-induced muscle damage. It was a comparative Experimental Study design. The sample consisted of 30 Male students who were randomly allocated to 2 groups, i.e. Group A (Foam Rolling) and Group B (Vibration Therapy) with 15 participants in each group. Participants performed ten sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either foam rolling or vibration therapy 24 and 48 hours post-DOMS protocol. Blood Creatinine level was measured before inducing DOMS(day 1) and after 24 hrs(day2) and 48 hrs(day 3) of recovery. Increase in serum levels of CK is used as an indirect marker of the microtrauma associated with DOMS. Pain, lower limb power, sprint speed and Hip range of motion were measured using Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Vertical Jump test, Sprint speed 30-meter test and goniometer respectively after 24 and 48 hours of recovery. Results showed both groups showed improvement on Day 2 and 3. However, Vibration therapy showed statistically better improvement compared to Foam Rolling group.

2015 ◽  
Vol 50 (3) ◽  
pp. 289-294 ◽  
Kelly A. Larkin-Kaiser ◽  
Jeffrey J. Parr ◽  
Paul A. Borsa ◽  
Steven Z. George

Context: Athletic trainers use clinical pain and range of motion (ROM) to gauge recovery after musculoskeletal injury. Limited evidence to date suggests which shoulder ROM measures can predict symptomatic relief and functional recovery after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Objective: To determine whether shoulder passive internal rotation, passive external rotation, active abduction, and active flexion and evoked pain with abduction are associated with resting pain experienced after exercise-induced DOMS. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Controlled research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 110 healthy, right-hand–dominant participants (44 men: age = 25.39 ± 7.00 years, height = 178.93 ± 7.01 cm, weight = 78.59 ± 14.04 kg; 66 women: age = 22.98 ± 6.11 years, height = 164.64 ± 6.94 cm, weight = 61.86 ± 11.67 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed an exercise-induced DOMS protocol for the external rotators of the dominant shoulder to replicate muscle injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Current resting pain was assessed daily for 96 hours using the Brief Pain Inventory. We evaluated functional recovery with measures of ROM in abduction, internal rotation, external rotation, and flexion. Evoked pain with active abduction was reported, and the pain rating served as the dependent variable in the regression model. Results: Impairment measures explained resting pain at 48 (R2 = 0.392) and 96 hours (R2 = 0.164). Abduction and internal-rotation ROM and evoked pain with abduction predicted resting pain at 48 hours (P < .001). At 96 hours, evoked pain with abduction of the injured arm (P < .001) was the significant contributor to resting pain. Conclusions: These models suggest that resting pain after experimentally induced DOMS occurs at 48 hours and is associated with specific ranges of motion and evoked pain with abduction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Wen-Dien Chang ◽  
Hung-Yu Lin ◽  
Nai-Jen Chang ◽  
Jih-Huah Wu

Objectives. Our study investigated the effects of 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for postexercise delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods. In this randomized control study, healthy participants were randomized into LEDT and placebo groups. LEDT (output frequency = 10 Hz; wavelength = 830 nm; total output power = 210 mW; and dose = 315 J/cm2) was applied to six sites in the damaged quadriceps for 10 min. The placebo group received sham LEDT with no energy output. The nondominant leg was chosen for DOMS induction, using an eccentric exercise. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold (PPT), thigh circumference, joint range of motion, and muscle strength were assessed before and immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postexercise. Results. Forty participants were divided into the LEDT group (n = 20) and the placebo group (n = 20). Compared with the placebo group, the LEDT group exhibited significant increases in PPT values at 48, 72, and 96 h postexercise ( p < 0.05 ). The joint range of motion was significantly different between the LEDT and placebo groups at 72 and 96 h postexercise ( p < 0.05 ). No significant intergroup differences were noted in thigh circumference and muscle strength ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. The application of 830 nm LEDT on postexercise DOMS pain exerted an analgesic effect but did not affect the muscle repair process. Future studies should elucidate the beneficial effects of 830 nm LEDT on muscle recovery or performance.

1992 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-102 ◽  
Craig R. Denegar ◽  
Andrew P. Yoho ◽  
Alex J. Borowicz ◽  
Nancy Bifulco

The efficacy of low-volt, microamperage stimulation (LVMAS) in the treatment of wounds and fractures has been demonstrated. Although these devices are also commonly used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, the efficacy of this practice has not been demonstrated. In this study, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) served as a model for musculoskeletal injury to compare daily treatment with LVMAS and static stretching to a placebo treatment and static stretching. DOMS was induced in the elbow flexor muscle group in 16 subjects, who were evaluated for pain, elbow flexor muscle group strength, and elbow extension range of motion. These data were collected before the eccentric exercise bout, before and after treatment 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following the exercise bout, and again 196 hours after the exercise bout. No significant differences were found between LVMAS and placebo treatments on any of the variables across the duration of the study, but the LVMAS did provide a transient analgesic effect 24 and 48 hours following the eccentric exercise.

2006 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 126-134 ◽  
Zainal Zainuddin ◽  
Paul Sacco ◽  
Mike Newton ◽  
Kazunori Nosaka

This study investigated the hypothesis that a bout of light concentric exercise (LCE) would alleviate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and enhance recovery from muscle damage. Fourteen subjects performed two bouts of 60 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors (Max-ECC) separated by 2-4 weeks. One arm performed LCE (600 elbow flexion and extension actions with minimal force generation) 1, 2, 3, and 4 d after Max-ECC; the contralateral (control) arm performed only Max-ECC. Changes in maximal isometric and isokinetic strength, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, and muscle soreness and tenderness were assessed before and immediately after LCE bouts. Changes in these measures and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity for 7 d after Max-ECC were compared between the control and LCE arms using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant (p < 0.05) decreases in muscle soreness (~40%) and tenderness (~40%) were evident immediately after LCE, which also resulted in small but significant decreases in strength (~15%) and increases in ROM (~5°). No significant differences in the changes in the measures following Max-ECC were observed between the arms. These results suggest that LCE has a temporary analgesic effect on DOMS, but no effect on recovery from muscle damage.Key words: muscle soreness, muscle tenderness, muscle strength, range of motion, creatine kinase.

1992 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-18 ◽  
Scott C. Haynes ◽  
David H. Perrin

This investigation examined the effect of a counterirritant on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Fourteen female subjects had DOMS induced in the elbow flexor muscles of the nondominant arm through repeated eccentric contractions. Subjects returned 48 hrs after exercise and were randomly assigned to either a counterirritant ointment (CO) or placebo ointment (PO) treatment group. They were asked to quantify the amount of pain they experienced using a graphic pain rating scale while attempting to extend their elbow. Eight ml of the counterirritant or placebo ointment was applied to the anterior aspect of the arm centered directly over the biceps brachii. Pain and range of motion measurements were taken both pretreatment and 15 minutes posttreatment. Analysis of variance revealed that the CO group experienced significant pain relief and increased range of motion while the placebo group showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that counterirritants may be an effective means of treating the pain and restricted range of motion associated with delayed onset muscle soreness.

1995 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 253-263 ◽  
Jayd M. Grossman ◽  
Brent L. Arnold ◽  
David H. Perrin ◽  
David M. Kahler

This study evaluated the effectiveness of ibuprofen in treating delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the elbow flexors when taken prior to and following exercise. Twenty subjects received either 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen or a placebo four times per day. Subjects performed intense eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors to elicit DOMS. Concentric and eccentric peak torque production against an isokinetic resistance of 0.52 radls, range of motion at the elbow, and subjective soreness of the elbow flexors were measured. ANOVA indicated no significant group-by-time interaction for concentric peak torque, eccentric peak torque, or pain. A significant interaction was revealed for range of motion. There was a significant difference within each group's ROM but no interaction between groups. It was concluded that the use of 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen prior to and following intense eccentric exercise was no more effective than a placebo in treating DOMS of the elbow flexors.

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