scholarly journals A Case of Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy

Steven Toh ◽  
Chean Chung Shen

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) is a recently described form of recurrent isolated subacute optic neuropathy, with accumulating evidence that it is a nosological distinct entity. The condition is highly responsive to systemic steroid treatment and prone to relapse on steroid withdrawal. Diagnosis and management of this condition is often challenging. This 33-year-old lady with family history of multiple sclerosis (MS), with uniocular visual loss of her right eye since 2 years old without apparent cause, presented with reduction of vision and loss of colour vision in the left eye, associated with painful eye movement. There was internuclear ophthalmoplegia but slit lamp examination were unremarkable. She had no other related sensory or motor symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal any features of MS. Aquaporin-4 antibody, anti-MOG and gene testing for Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy were all negative. Metabolic, infective, and other autoimmune causes were also excluded. Visual evoked potential studies of left eye showed a mild reduction in amplitude with no prolongation of latency. Her multiple optic neuritis recurrences were treated with intravenous steroids followed by tapering regime of oral prednisolone with good effect. Knowledge of this rare condition as part of the differential diagnoses of possible aetiologies of optic neuropathy is important among Ophthalmologists, as prompt diagnosis and steroid treatment helped reduce the associated risk of blindness. Multiple relapses after initial successful treatment of inflammatory optic neuropathy should raise the suspicion of CRION.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S19

2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-4 ◽  
Sang Ki Lee ◽  
Dae Geon Song ◽  
Won Sik Choy

Introduction. A glomus tumor is a benign vascular tumor derived from glomus cells and occurs mainly in the subcutaneous layer of the subungual or digital pulp. Extradigital glomus tumors have been reported within the palm, wrist, forearm, foot, bone, stomach, colon, cervix, and mesentery. Glomus tumors can originate from the intraosseous, intramuscular, periosteal, intravascular, and intraneural layers. However, a glomus tumor originating from the intravascular layer of the forearm is a rare condition.Case Report. A 44-year-old woman had a 7-year history of chronic pain and focal tenderness of the forearm. No hypersensitivity or sensory alterations were observed. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass measuring 5 × 3 × 2 mm leading to a vein. Surgical excision was performed, and the tumor was completely resected. Finding of gross examination revealed a dark-red, well-defined soft tissue tumor, and histologic examination confirmed that the mass was a glomus tumor. The patient’s symptoms were completely resolved postoperatively.Conclusion. Intravascular glomus tumors rarely occur in the forearm; therefore, a thorough physical exam, comprehensive medical history, in-depth imaging, and early surgical excision upon clinical suspicion may be helpful to prevent a delayed or incorrect diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 194187442110053
Chen Fei Ng ◽  
Chia Yin Chong

A 37-year-old man with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis presented with an episode of generalized tonic seizure. He complained of poor concentration and forgetfulness for 1 week. He suffered a relapse of lupus nephritis 4 months ago and received a course of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil. Clinically, there was no focal neurological deficit. Retroviral screening was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed eccentric and concentric signs which confirmed the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis.

2011 ◽  
Vol 02 (01) ◽  
pp. 071-073 ◽  
Puneet Mittal ◽  
Gaurav Mittal

ABSTRACTCombined clinical presentation of hemifacial spasm and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia is also known as painful tic convulsif (PTC). It is a rare condition and the most common cause is vascular compression. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is characterized by dilated and tortuous vertebral and basilar arteries. VBD is an uncommon and rarely reported cause of PTC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to its inherent excellent contrast resolution, is an excellent modality for demonstrating the nerve compression by dilated and tortuous vessels seen in this condition. For this purpose, 3D MRI sequences are especially useful like constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and MR angiography. Both of these have been reported to be helpful in the diagnosis of this condition. We report a case of PTC in which we were able to document facial and trigeminal nerve compression by VBD on MRI, using CISS and time-of-fl ight MR angiography.

2020 ◽  
Vol 66 (10) ◽  
pp. 1351-1354
Gustavo Bittencourt Camilo ◽  
Marco Antônio Riccio ◽  
Anna Luíza Machado Nogueira ◽  
Amanda Campos Querubino ◽  
Ana Luísa dos Santos Maciel ◽  

SUMMARY Vertebral Artery Dissection (VAD) is a rare condition that can be caused by a wide amplitude of neck movement, which injures the vessel wall and can cause ischemia in the cerebellum. We present a 37-year-old man with herniated lumbar disc and allergic rhinosinusitis, which caused sneezing spells. After one of these bouts with a ricochet of the head, he presented C3 misalignment with local pain. Twenty-one days later, affected by a new crisis, he presented left temporal headache, nystagmus, and vertigo. After 3 days, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) identified 2 regions of cerebellar ischemia and filling failure of the right vertebral artery. After 2 days, Computed Angiotomography (CT Angiography) was performed and showed right VAD with a local thrombus, without aneurysmal signs. Transcranial Doppler did not indicate an increase in blood flow from this artery. The suggested treatment involved administration of anticoagulant Apixabana 5mg, 12/12h, for 3 months, until the condition was reevaluated with new Angio CT and MRI. It was recommended that the patient was released from work for 1 month and forbidden from doing intense physical exercises for 3 months; however, due to setbacks, these deadlines were extended until a new appointment, 4 months after the first visit. The new tests showed no changes, indicating that the condition was stable. This case aims to indicate the possible investigations of the diagnosis and therapeutic options of the rare association between VAD with cerebellar infarction in a well-documented case.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. e0256543
Andreas Kreft ◽  
Katrin Hippe ◽  
Eva Maria Wagner-Drouet ◽  
Isabelle Ries ◽  
Arne Kandulski ◽  

Acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) is an important, life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). To investigate the value of multiple simultaneous colon biopsies in improving diagnostic accuracy in patients with aGvHD, we retrospectively analyzed 157 patients after alloHSCT. The biopsies were evaluated individually using three established histological grading systems (Lerner, Sale, and Melson). The maximum, minimum, median, and mean histological aGvHD grades were calculated for each patient, and the results were correlated with the Glucksberg grade of clinical manifestation of GvHD, steroid therapy status, and outcome. We found that multiple colon biopsies enhanced diagnostic sensitivity. Moreover, higher histological grades correlated with steroid therapy initiation and refractoriness; the latter particularly occurred when advanced damage was present in all samples and healthy colon mucosa was reduced or absent. On multivariate analysis, the minimal Lerner and Glucksberg grades for intestinal aGvHD were significantly associated with steroid treatment failure. Ninety-nine patients died. The median survival was 285 days after the biopsies were taken. Fifteen patients died from relapse of their underling disorder and 84 from other causes, mostly infection (53 patients) and GvHD (14 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between none-relapse mortality and the mean Lerner grade, minimum Melson grade, Glucksberg organ stage, and platelet counts. Thus, we found the Lerner system to be superior to the other grading methods in most instances and histologic evaluation of multiple simultaneously obtained biopsies from the colon to result in a higher diagnostic yield, which helps plan systemic steroid treatment while predicting treatment response and outcome.

2019 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 255-258
Naureen Abdul Khalid ◽  
Nainal Shah ◽  

Spinal epidural haematoma is a rare condition, which may be due to trauma, surgery, epidural catheterisation or disorders of coagulation. We report a case of 60 year old lady who was on warfarin for Atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with history of non-traumatic sudden onset pain in both legs and difficulty in walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spine demonstrated epidural haematoma which was treated conservatively. Another dilemma was anticoagulation for AF. We examine the options to manage such case.

1993 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 201-205 ◽  
Seung Kyung Hann ◽  
Hyung Il Kim ◽  
Sungbin Im ◽  
Yoon-Kee Park ◽  
Jian Cui ◽  

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