Leptospirosis: A Rare Cause of Acute Hepatitis

Jo Ann Wong

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Humans acquire the infection either through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, commonly rats or indirect contact of contaminated water or soil. It is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in the UK with fewer than 100 reported cases a year and hence diagnosis is commonly delayed. A 51-year-old fit Caucasian gentleman was admitted with a one-week history of painless jaundice, dark urine and pale-coloured stools. This was associated with feeling unwell, anorexia, nausea and intermittent epigastric discomfort. He binges on alcohol on a weekend. He works as a telephone engineer which occasionally exposes him to sewage water. On clinical examination, he was icteric with mild right hypochondriac tenderness. Liver biopsy was performed and histologically it was suggestive of leptospirosis. He was started on a five-day course of intravenous ceftriaxone followed by two days course of oral doxycycline. His IgM leptospirosis result finally came back as positive. Due to the rarity of leptospirosis in the UK, the serological testing of leptospirosis is only performed in the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory in Porton Down, Salisbury leading to a delay in getting the result. The patient underwent an invasive procedure which can be avoided if the leptospirosis serology was ordered early and result available quickly. Fortunately, the patient made a full recovery after two months. Leptospirosis should be considered in an individual with acute hepatitis and a history of exposure to sewage.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S22

2009 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Helen M. Cohn

This bibliography, in geographic terms, covers principally Australia, but also New Zealand, New Guinea and other islands of the Pacific Ocean near Australia, and Antarctica. It includes material on the history of the natural sciences (mathematics, physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences), some of the applied sciences (including medical and health sciences, agriculture, manufacturing and engineering), and human sciences (psychology, anthropology and sociology). Biographical material on practitioners in these sciences is also of interest. The sources used in compiling this bibliography include those that have proved useful in the past in finding relevant citations. The library catalogues of the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, the National Library of Australia and the National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Matauranga O Aotearoa were particularly useful sources of information. Journals that have yielded articles for previous bibliographies were checked, as were some titles that have not previously been scanned. Hence a number of citations are included that were published earlier than 2008. Assistance has been received from a number of people who sent items or information about items published in 2008 for inclusion in the bibliography. In particular, Professor Rod Home has been most helpful in forwarding relevant citations. Staff of the eScholarship Research Centre at the University of Melbourne, especially Helen Morgan, were of great assistance in the preparation of this bibliography. Readers may have access to information about relevant books, journal articles, conference papers, reports, Master's and PhD theses and reviews published in 2009. They are encouraged to send such information to the compiler at the above email address for inclusion in future bibliographies.

Sally Power ◽  
Gareth Rees ◽  
Chris Taylor

Since coming to power in 1997, New Labour has adopted area-based initiatives (ABIs) as a key strategy to combat economic, social and (especially) educational disadvantage. This paper briefly outlines the history of ABIs within the UK and explores the discontinuities and continuities between recent initiatives and their earlier counterparts. It argues that while New Labour's ABIs incorporate distinctive, new characteristics, they are largely based on the same assumptions which underpinned previous ABIs. The limits of these models, and the somewhat patchy track record of ABIs, raise serious questions about their efficacy and the restricted policy repertoire of the UK State.

2000 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. 420-427 ◽  
H. E. Harris ◽  
M. E. Ramsay ◽  
J. Heptonstall ◽  
K. Soldan ◽  
K. P. Eldridge ◽  

2008 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 190-205 ◽  
Chris A. Williams

2016 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 210-224 ◽  
Gordon Tait ◽  
Belinda Carpenter

AbstractThe long history of suicide as a criminal offence still has a significant contemporary effect on how it is perceived, conceptualised and adjudged. This is particularly the case within countries where suicide is largely determined within a coronial system, such as Australia, the UK and the US. This paper details the outcomes of a study involving semi-structured interviews with coroners both in England and Australia, as well as observations at inquests. It focuses around the widely held contention that the suicide rates produced within these coronial systems are underestimations of anywhere between 15 to 50 per cent. The results of these interviews suggest that there are three main reasons for this systemic underestimation. The first reflects the legacy of suicide as a criminal offence, resulting in the highest standard of proof for findings of suicide in the UK, and a continuing stigma attached to families of the deceased. The second is the considerable pressure brought to bear upon coroners by the family of the deceased, who, because of that stigma, commonly agitate for any finding other than that of suicide. The third involves the rise of ‘therapeutic jurisprudence’, wherein coroners take on the responsibility of the emotional well-being of the grieving families, which in turn affects the likelihood of reaching a finding of suicide. The conclusions drawn by the paper are also twofold: first – with respect to the stigma of suicide – it will take a lot more than simple decriminalisation to change deeply held social perceptions within the community. Second, given that suicide prevention programmes and policies are based on such deeply questionable statistics, targeted changes to coronial legislation and practice would appear to be required.

2020 ◽  
Vol 61 (1) ◽  
pp. 1.32-1.37
Ken Pounds
X Ray ◽  

Abstract Ken Pounds reviews the history of X-ray astronomy in the UK, more than half a century of fruitful science and instrument development.

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