scholarly journals Huge Renal Angiomyolipoma in a Child with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma

Sharifah NurDurrah Binti Syed Mudzhar ◽  
Mohd Yusran Othman

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare neuro-cutaneous disorder that is associated with the development of benign hamartomas including renal angiomyolipoma (RAML). TSC associated RAML are usually asymptomatic, but it carries a life-threatening bleeding risk. We are sharing a case of a 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed to have TSC with associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma and autism. She presented with a history of worsening abdominal distension over 3 weeks duration and clinically noted to be pale with a ballotable left flank mass. Ultrasound and CT scan found to have multiple RAML in both kidneys with a huge mass on the left side. The mass represented a huge RAML (8cm) with aneurysmal formation with suspicion of intratumoral bleeding. The option of conservative management with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor followed with partial nephrectomy has been questioned with its life-threatening risk of bleeding and inability to do biopsy to rule out the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. Decision for nephrectomy was then made clearer following a MAG-3 scan which revealed only 11% differential function of the left kidney. She underwent a total left nephrectomy uneventfully and intraoperatively noted to have an enlarging lesion as compared to the previous imaging; 15cm in largest diameter. Histopathological finding was consistent with multifocal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral haematoma. Decision for nephrectomy in TSC-associated RAML need to be justified carefully in view of its risk of losing the contralateral kidney following the disease progression which may end up with life-long renal replacement therapy.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S26

2016 ◽  
Vol 26 (5) ◽  
pp. 1025-1028 ◽  
Massimo Colaneri ◽  
Andrea Quarti ◽  
Marco Pozzi

AbstractWe report a case of a newborn, affected by tuberous sclerosis complex, with a prenatally diagnosed giant cardiac rhabdomyoma associated with a large renal angiomyolipoma presenting as a duct-depending lesion not treatable by surgery. After receiving everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, we observed a rapid, significant, and durable reduction of both lesions without remarkable side effects.

2020 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 337-345 ◽  
Erica V. Stelmaszewski ◽  
Daniella B. Parente ◽  
Alberto Farina ◽  
Anna Stein ◽  
Anthony Gutierrez ◽  

AbstractIntroduction:Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.Methods:ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.Conclusions:ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.

2017 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 48-54 ◽  
Felipe Mussi von Ranke ◽  
Igor Murad Faria ◽  
Gláucia Zanetti ◽  
Bruno Hochhegger ◽  
Arthur Soares Souza Jr. ◽  

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically determined hamartomatous neurocutaneous disease with high phenotypic variability. TSC is characterized by widespread hamartomas and benign, or rarely malignant, neoplasms distributed in several organs throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lung. Common manifestations include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, white matter abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, cardiac rhabdomyoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, renal angiomyolipoma, and skin lesions. The wide range of organs affected by the disease implies that TSC1 and TSC2 genes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Although recent advances in treatment have improved morbidity, the prognosis remains quite poor and nearly 40% of patients die by the age of 35 years. Imaging is important in the evaluation of TSC because of its role not only in presumptive diagnosis, but also in defining the full extent of involvement. This information allows a better understanding of the behavioural phenotype, as related to lesion location. Imaging also contributes to treatment planning. This pictorial review describes common and uncommon imaging manifestations of TSC.

Dermatology ◽  
2020 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Chang-Ching Wei ◽  
Yu-Ping Hsiao ◽  
Shuo-Yan Gau ◽  
Yue-Ting Wu ◽  
Chi-Tang Wu ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Facial angiofibromas may be present since early childhood in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), causing substantial cosmetic disfigurement. Current therapies are partially effective, but they are uncomfortable, produce scarring, and are especially expensive. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral everolimus for TSC-associated angiofibromas. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This retrospective study included TSC patients being treated with oral everolimus for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and angiomyolipomas (AMLs). We recorded the changes in facial angiofibromas. Changes in the Angiofibroma Grading Scale (AGS) indicators were recorded according to erythema, average lesion size, lesion density, and percent involvement on the forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin. The scores were recorded before and after the administration of oral everolimus. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Twenty-one patients being treated with oral everolimus were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 20.5 years (range 11–44 years, 4 males, and 17 females). The mean dose of oral everolimus was 3.6 mg/day. Clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement was observed in erythema (<i>p</i> = 0.001), average lesion size (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001), lesion density (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001), and percent involvement (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Changes in the AGS findings were statistically significant on the forehead (<i>p</i> = 0.001), nose (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001) cheeks (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001), and chin (<i>p</i> = 0.004). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Everolimus shows evident improvement and is approved for TSC-associated SEGAs and AMLs. The current study demonstrated the efficacy of oral everolimus in reducing facial angiofibromas, showing the parallel benefits of the treatment protocol for TSC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Hao Guo ◽  
Wenda Wang ◽  
Guoyang Zheng ◽  
Zhan Wang ◽  

Abstract Objective Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by lesions throughout the body. Our previous study showed the abnormal up-regulation of miRNAs plays an important part in the pathogenesis of TSC-related renal angiomyolipoma (TSC-RAML). circRNAs were known as important regulators of miRNA, but little is known about the circRNAs in TSC-RAMLs. Methods Microarray chips and RNA sequencing were used to identify the circRNAs and mRNAs that were differently expressed between the TSC-RAML and normal kidney tissue. A competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network was constructed to reveal the regulation of miRNAs and mRNAs by the circRNAs. The biological functions of circRNA and mRNA were analyzed by pathway analysis. Microenvironmental cell types were estimated with the MCP-counter package. Results We identified 491 differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) and 212 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and 6 DECs were further confirmed by q-PCR. A ceRNA regulatory network which included 6 DECs, 5 miRNAs, and 63 mRNAs was established. Lipid biosynthetic process was significantly up-regulated in TSC-RAML, and the humoral immune response and the leukocyte chemotaxis pathway were found to be down-regulated. Fibroblasts are enriched in TSC-RAML, and the up-regulation of circRNA_000799 and circRNA_025332 may be significantly correlated to the infiltration of the fibroblasts. Conclusion circRNAs may regulate the lipid metabolism of TSC-RAML by regulation of the miRNAs. Fibroblasts are enriched in TSC-RAMLs, and the population of fibroblast may be related to the alteration of circRNAs of TSC-RAML. Lipid metabolism in fibroblasts is a potential treatment target for TSC-RAML.

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