Latest Evidence on Non-Communicable Disease Management (NCD) during COVID-19 Pandemic

Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman

The year 2020 has been dominated by a communicable disease which most did not see coming and are ill- prepared to handle. While daily headlines the world over are dominated by new cases and death from COVID-19, other major health issues must not take a back seat. As of 30thNovember this year, 357 people have died of COVID-19 in Malaysia,while close to 15,000 Malaysians died of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) alone. With IHD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) being the number 1 and number 3 causes of death (15% and 8% of all death, respectively) our focus on COVID-19 must not distract us from the ‘elephant in the room’. Evidence from UK showed that while hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has significantly decreased by 50%, out of hospital cardiac arrest has significantly increased by 56%; and in hospital mortality from AMI has increased by at least 35% during the pandemic. Patients are shying away from coming for scheduled follow ups, and there has been a reduction in guideline recommended care for NCD. This is confounded by early scare which suggested that treatment of risk factors for NCDs, especially for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, may increase susceptibility to and worsen prognosis for patients with COVID-19. Since COVID-19 is a new entity, latest evidence generated are mainly from observational studies with few clinical trials with the exception of vaccine trials. What do we know about management of NCD in the COVID-era?Since the discovery that SARS-COV-2 virus attached itself to the ACE2 receptors before entering cells, alarm bells were sounded that patients treated with RAAS inhibitors may be susceptible to and have worse prognosis. Withup to 60% of hypertensiveworldwide taking this class of drugs, the concern is understandable. Reassuringly, 6 observational studies from 4 countries and 1 RCT from a 5th country showed this not to be true. Studies from China and Italy showed that those on RAAS inhibitors have better prognosis and this has triggered an RCT which hypothesized that pre-treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers may be beneficial in preventing pulmonary damage in these patients. Another RCT is looking at recombinant human ACE2 as treatment for patients with COVID-19. In diabetic patients, an observational study from New York showed those on statin has reduced mortality compared to non-user and in a large UK based primary care setting there was no increased risk of COVID-19 among patients prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors. The SGLT2 inhibitors have been proven to improve clinical outcome including mortality in diabetics and could be safely used to treat patients during the pandemic. Based on a nationwide retrospective cohort in the UK, overall mortality was higher for diabetics admitted to ICU or HDU and with greatest mortality impact in younger patients.The next few months will see more prospective intervention studies publishedaddressing the various unanswered questions. It is worth remembering that substandard care is responsible for upto 84% of CV death. Hence, we shouldnot let our guards down with NCDs even when the world’s attention is focused on COVID-19.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S10

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (5) ◽  
pp. 541-548
Lisa R Rogers ◽  
Quinn T Ostrom ◽  
Julia Schroer ◽  
Jaime Vengoechea ◽  
Li Li ◽  

Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is identified as a risk factor for the development of several systemic cancers, but its frequency among patients with glioblastoma and its association with clinical outcomes have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for and affecting survival in glioblastoma patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study, consisting of patients with diagnoses at a single institution between 2007 and 2013, was conducted. Clinical records were reviewed, and clinical and laboratory data pertaining to 5 metabolic criteria were extrapolated. Overall survival was determined by time from initial surgical diagnosis to date of death or last follow-up. Results The frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients diagnosed with glioblastoma was slightly greater than the frequency of metabolic syndrome among the general population. Within a subset of patients (n = 91) receiving the full schedule of concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide, median overall survival was significantly shorter for patients with metabolic syndrome compared with those without. In addition, the presence of all 5 elements of the metabolic syndrome resulted in significantly decreased median survival in these patients. Conclusions We identified the metabolic syndrome at a slightly higher frequency in patients with diagnosed glioblastoma compared with the general population. In addition, metabolic syndrome with each of its individual components is associated with an overall worse prognosis in patients receiving the standard schedule of radiation and temozolomide after adjustment for age.

2014 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-67 ◽  
Peter Eastman ◽  
Brian Le ◽  
Gillian McCarthy ◽  
James Watt ◽  
Mark Rosenthal

BMJ ◽  
2020 ◽  
pp. m3342 ◽  
Kristian B Filion ◽  
Lisa M Lix ◽  
Oriana HY Yu ◽  
Sophie Dell’Aniello ◽  
Antonios Douros ◽  

Abstract Objective To compare the risk of cardiovascular events between sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among people with type 2 diabetes in a real world context of clinical practice. Design Multi-database retrospective cohort study using a prevalent new user design with subsequent meta-analysis. Setting Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), with administrative healthcare databases from seven Canadian provinces and the United Kingdom, 2013-18. Population 209 867 new users of a SGLT2 inhibitor matched to 209 867 users of a DPP-4 inhibitor on time conditional propensity score and followed for a mean of 0.9 years. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death). Secondary outcomes were the individual components of MACE, heart failure, and all cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate site specific adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals, comparing use of SGLT2 inhibitors with use of DPP-4 inhibitors in an as treated approach. Site specific results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Results Compared with DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with decreased risks of MACE (incidence rate per 1000 person years: 11.4 v 16.5; hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.84), myocardial infarction (5.1 v 6.4; 0.82, 0.70 to 0.96), cardiovascular death (3.9 v 7.7; 0.60, 0.54 to 0.67), heart failure (3.1 v 7.7; 0.43, 0.37 to 0.51), and all cause mortality (8.7 v 17.3; 0.60, 0.54 to 0.67). SGLT2 inhibitors had more modest benefits for ischaemic stroke (2.6 v 3.5; 0.85, 0.72 to 1.01). Similar benefits for MACE were observed with canagliflozin (0.79, 0.66 to 0.94), dapagliflozin (0.73, 0.63 to 0.85), and empagliflozin (0.77, 0.68 to 0.87). Conclusions In this large observational study conducted in a real world clinical practice context, the short term use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular events compared with the use of DPP-4 inhibitors. Trial registration NCT03939624 .

2020 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 138-150 ◽  
Simona Hapca ◽  
Moneeza K. Siddiqui ◽  
Ryan S.Y. Kwan ◽  
Michelle Lim ◽  
Shona Matthew ◽  

BackgroundThere are few observational studies evaluating the risk of AKI in people with type 2 diabetes, and even fewer simultaneously investigating AKI and CKD in this population. This limits understanding of the interplay between AKI and CKD in people with type 2 diabetes compared with the nondiabetic population.MethodsIn this retrospective, cohort study of participants with or without type 2 diabetes, we used electronic healthcare records to evaluate rates of AKI and various statistical methods to determine their relationship to CKD status and further renal function decline.ResultsWe followed the cohort of 16,700 participants (9417 with type 2 diabetes and 7283 controls without diabetes) for a median of 8.2 years. Those with diabetes were more likely than controls to develop AKI (48.6% versus 17.2%, respectively) and have preexisting CKD or CKD that developed during follow-up (46.3% versus 17.2%, respectively). In the absence of CKD, the AKI rate among people with diabetes was nearly five times that of controls (121.5 versus 24.6 per 1000 person-years). Among participants with CKD, AKI rate in people with diabetes was more than twice that of controls (384.8 versus 180.0 per 1000 person-years after CKD diagnostic date, and 109.3 versus 47.4 per 1000 person-years before CKD onset in those developing CKD after recruitment). Decline in eGFR slope before AKI episodes was steeper in people with diabetes versus controls. After AKI episodes, decline in eGFR slope became steeper in people without diabetes, but not among those with diabetes and preexisting CKD.ConclusionsPatients with diabetes have significantly higher rates of AKI compared with patients without diabetes, and this remains true for individuals with preexisting CKD.

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Sehoon Park ◽  
Chung Hee Baek ◽  
Heounjeong Go ◽  
Young Hoon Kim ◽  
Sang–il Min ◽  

Abstract Background Although immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is associated with an increased risk of renal allograft failure, evidences for its treatment, including renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade (RAASB) usage, remain limited. Methods In this bi-center retrospective cohort study, we included patients who were recently diagnosed with IgAN through allograft biopsies. We identified their 6-month antihypertensive medication prescriptions and investigated the association between the medication types, albuminuria changes, and risk of 5-year death-censored-graft-failure (DCGF). The mixed effect model and cox regression analysis were used. Results A total of 464 allograft IgAN patients were included: 272, 38, 33, and 121 patients in the no antihypertensive medication, single agent RAASB, single agent beta blocker (BB)/calcium channel blocker (CCB), and combination therapy groups, respectively. High-degree albuminuria after 6 months of allograft IgAN diagnosis was an important prognostic parameter and a partial mediator for the association between the subgroups and 5-year DCGF. The usage of single RAASB was associated with decrement of albuminuria from allograft IgAN diagnosis (P for interaction = 0.03). The single BB/CCB group demonstrated significantly worse prognosis than the single RAASB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76 [1.09–6.98]; P = 0.03). Conclusions In conclusion, RAASB may be beneficial for graft prognosis in early allograft IgAN patients who require single antihypertensive medication therapy, by means of reducing albuminuria. Further investigation of treatment strategy in allograft IgAN is warranted.

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