Vaccination Knowledge and Perception among Pharmacy Undergraduates in a Northern Public University in Malaysia

Tinagaran A/L Karunakaran ◽  
Balamurugan A/L Tangiisuran ◽  
Nur Hafzan Md Hanafiah

Introduction: Worldwide, pharmacists are one of the advocates and practitioners which are commonly overlooked in improving vaccine hesitancy.Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the vaccination knowledge and perception level as well as the sources of information sought, to support the importance in including the topic within the existing pharmacy curriculum.Methods: A cross sectional study using a validated and tested 43-itemed questionnaire were conducted among pharmacy students in USM. It included 4 domains of demographic data, knowledge on vaccination, perception towards vaccination and source of information on vaccination. Scoring and grouping of knowledge and perception level is based on modified Bloom’s cut-off point. A confidence interval of 95%, p value ≤ 0.05. Chi-square, ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test were considered for the analysis of data.Results: Among 478 eligible pharmacy undergraduates, 311 (65%) participated and completed the questionnaire with a majority of female’s respondents (76.5%). Nearly 72.1% of the students had fair level of knowledge and 90% had good perception level towards vaccination. Online resource shown to be the favourable source of information onvaccination(84.2%). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant knowledge difference across the age, study year and races, (p=.02), (p<0.05) and (p<0.05) respectively. On the other hand, the level of perception shown to have a significant association with nationality (p=0.016), gender (p=0.049) and race(p=0.002).Conclusion: Majority of the students were shown to have fair knowledge and good perception towards vaccination, suggesting the need of implementing vaccination content delivery in the existing curricula to ensure better understanding and practice towards vaccination advocacy.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S28

2020 ◽  
Vol 06 (04) ◽  
pp. 6-11
Hannah D’souza ◽  

Background: Guitarists use complex and different movement patterns in both hands simultaneously. Applying pressure on the strings and strumming both require good strength whereas playing the melody on the fret-board demands good proprioception. There is a need to find out if guitarists perform functionally well with respect to pinch strength and proprioception which are prerequisites for playing the guitar. Therefore, the aim of the study is to assess and compare finger proprioception and pinch strength in amateur and professional guitarists. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on 50 amateur and 50 professional guitarists from Mumbai. A self-made questionnaire including their demographic data was asked to be filled. Proprioception was measured using the pinch aperture proprioception device and lateral pinch strength was measured using the Jamar® Hydraulic Pinch Gauge. The average of 3 trials was taken for finger proprioception and lateral pinch strength. The data obtained was then taken for further analysis. Result: Professional guitarists had better finger proprioception (p value = 0.0001 for both right & left hands) and lateral pinch strength (p value =0.0159, 0.0001 for the right & left hand respectively) than amateur guitarists. Also, the left hand had better finger proprioception (p value <0.0001, 0.0059 for amateur & professional guitarists respectively) and right hand had better lateral pinch strength (p value=0.0001 for both professional and amateur guitarists) in both professional and amateur guitarists. Conclusion: Professional guitarists had significantly better finger Proprioception and lateral pinch strength as compared to the amateur guitarists.

2020 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 257-263
Andoko Andoko ◽  
Dimas Ning Pangesti ◽  
Nurhayati Nurhayati

Knowledge and motivation in management of diabetes mellitus complicatingBackground: The increasing of diabetes mellitus prevalence and complication occurrence. The number of diabetes mellitus in 2018, there were 654 patients. A pre-survey in January 2019 on 15 respondents, 50.7% patients had a poor knowledge and 54.9% had a poor motivation to prevent complication of diabetes mellitus. Purpose: To know the correlation between knowledge and motivation in management of diabetes mellitus complicatingMethod: A quantitative with cross sectional method. The population was all outpatient  at Internal Polyclinic of Bhayangkara Polda Lampung Hospital and the samples were 48 patients. The instruments were questionnaires. The data analsysi by chi square.Results: Shows that 30 respondents (62.5%) had good a knowledge. The other 27 respondents (56.3%) had high motivation in management of diabetes mellitus complicating. There was correlation between knowledge and motivation in management of diabetes mellitus complicating (p value 0.029, OR 4.7).Conclusion: There was correlation between knowledge and motivation in management of diabetes mellitus complicating.The health practitioners should intensify the health promotion to patient by displaying posters and distributing leaflet for hospital visitors to improve their knowledge.Keywords: Knowledge; Motivation; Management; Diabetes mellitus; Complicating Pendahuluan: Adanya peningkatan prevalensi penderita DM, serta meningkatnya angka kejadian komplikasi penderita DM di RS Bhayangkara Polda Lampung tahun 2018 berjumlah 654 penderita. Dari presurvei bulan januari 2019 didapat 15 responden, tingkat pengetahuan kurang sekitar (50,7%) dan yang mempunyai motivasi rendah (54,9%).Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan dan motivasi penderita diabetes melitus.Metode: Penelitian kuantitatif, dan menggunakan cross sectional study, populasipasien yang menderita  diabetes melitus  di Poliklinik Penyakit Dalam RS Bhayangkara Polda Lampung. Sampelnya sebanyak 48 orang, instrumen menggunakan kuesioner dan analisa data menggunakan uji chi square.Hasil: Tingkat pengetahuan baik 30 responden (62.5%), motivasi tinggi 27 responden (56.3%).Ada hubungan antara pengetahuan dengan motivasi penderita DM dalam mencegah komplikasi ( p value 0,029. OR 4,7).Simpulan: Ada hubungan antara pengetahuan dengan motivasi penderita DM dalam mencegah komplikasi. Saran kepada RS Bhayangkara meningkatkan kegiatan promosi kesehatan tentang pola hidup yang baik bagi klien DM, dengan memasang poster dan membagian leaflet.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Christian Fabiansen ◽  
Bernardette Cichon ◽  
Charles W. Yaméogo ◽  
Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf ◽  
Kevin P. Q. Phelan ◽  

Abstract Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated based on low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) or both. This study aimed to assess associations of admission criteria and body composition (BC), to improve treatment of MAM. We undertook a cross-sectional study among 6–23 months old Burkinabe children with MAM. Fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by deuterium dilution and expressed as FFM (FFMI) and FM index (FMI). Of 1,489 children, 439 (29.5%) were recruited by low MUAC only (MUAC-O), 734 (49.3%) by low WLZ and low MUAC (WLZ-MUAC) and 316 (21.2%) by low WLZ only (WLZ-O). Thus, 1,173 (78.8%) were recruited by low MUAC, with or without low WLZ (ALL-MUAC). After adjustments, WLZ-O had 89 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 5; 172) lower FFM compared to MUAC-O. Similarly, WLZ-O had 0.89 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.77; 1.01) lower FFMI compared to MUAC-O, whereas there was no difference for FMI. However, boys included by WLZ-O compared to MUAC-O had 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05; 0.38) higher FMI. In contrast, girls included by WLZ-O had 0.17 (95% CI 0.01; 0.33) kg/m2 lower FMI compared to MUAC-O (interaction, p = 0.002). We found that different criteria for admission into MAM treatment programmes select children with differences in BC, especially FFMI. Trial registration: ISRCTN42569496.

2016 ◽  
Vol 130 (7) ◽  
pp. 628-634 ◽  
S Morris ◽  
T Martin ◽  
D Mccahon ◽  
S Bennett

AbstractObjectives:To determine the proportion of UK surfers aware of external auditory canal exostosis, to identify surfer characteristics associated with knowledge of the condition and to explore attitudes to earplug use.Method:An online, cross-sectional survey of UK-based surfers.Results:Of 375 surfers, 86.1 per cent (n = 323; 95 per cent confidence interval = 82.3–89.3) reported awareness of external auditory canal exostosis. Further investigation revealed that, despite their awareness of the condition, 23.4 per cent of these surfers (88 out of 323; 95 per cent confidence interval = 19.5–28.0) had little or no knowledge about external auditory canal exostosis. Predictors of knowledge included: distance from nearest surfing beach (p = 0.001), surfing standard (ability) (p = 0.008), earplug use (p = 0.024) and positive external auditory canal exostosis diagnosis (p = 0.009).Conclusion:The findings suggest that a significant minority of UK surfers have no knowledge about this condition. Knowledge of external auditory canal exostosis was significantly associated with earplug use when surfing. Efforts to improve surfers’ knowledge are required to enable surfers to better protect themselves, which could reduce the incidence of external auditory canal exostosis.

1993 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-13 ◽  
S Dollfus ◽  
M Petit ◽  
JF Menard ◽  
P Lesieur

SummaryThe concordance and degree of overlap between 13 diagnostic systems for schizophrenia, including the five European systems of Berner, Bleuler, Langfeldt, Pull and Schneider, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study (N = 51) taking the phase of illness (acute or residual) into account. The diagnostic assessments were processed by computer using a 183-item standardised checklist and a data-processing program in GW-Basic language. The inter-rater reliability, as assessed by Kappa coefficient, was good to excellent for each diagnostic system established by this method (K from 0.5 to 1). When comparing the concordance between pairs of 13 diagnostic systems for schizophrenia in acute and residual phase groups, results showed that only two significant relationships were not influenced by the phase of illness (Carpenter x RDC; Catego x Schneider), while 24 were. These included only two relationships in the acute group (Carpenter Catego; Carpenter Schneider) and 22 links between pairs of systems in the residual group. In the acute group, no diagnosis of schizophrenia, including duration criteria such as those of DSM III-R, Feighner, Langfeldt, Pull and RDC, was linked to other systems. In the residual group, the operational systems such as Catego, DSM III-R, Feighner, Newhaven, Pull and RDC had more than five relationships with the other systems whereas the non-operational systems of Bleuler, ICD9, Langfeldt and Schneider had less than four relationships with the others. Except Pull's criteria, the European diagnostic systems, in particular Berner's and Bleuler's, seemed to differ from the others because of the few relationships displayed. The results underline the importance of taking the phase of illness into account when comparing between studies utilizing different diagnostic systems for schizophrenia. They also show the relationships between European and international diagnostic systems, insufficiently established so far.

QJM ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 112 (11) ◽  
pp. 847-853
X Cao ◽  
Y Gu ◽  
J Fu ◽  
T Q C Vu ◽  
Q Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Sarcopenia is emerging as an important public health problem, and evidences have determined that poor sleep is associated with muscle strength, but the potential effects of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), snoring and witnessed apnea on handgrip strength have not been evaluated. Aim We aimed to examine the association between EDS, snoring, witnessed apnea and muscle strength in an adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 19 434 adults. Handgrip strength was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer. EDS was assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale, snoring and witnessed apnea during sleep were reported through simple yes/no questions. Analysis of covariance was carried out to determine the association between EDS with snoring or witnessed apnea and muscle strength. Results The means (95% confidence interval) for average handgrip strength/body weight (kg/kg) across symptoms categories were 0.396 (0.333–0.472), 0.393 (0.330–0.467), 0.396 (0.333–0.471) and 0.386 (0.325–0.460) (P < 0.0001), respectively. Similar results were observed with maximal handgrip strength/body weight (kg/kg). Conclusions Self-reported EDS accompanied with snoring or apnea is associated with lowest handgrip strength, independently of confounding factors. Whether improvement of EDS, snoring and apnea, can ameliorate age-associated decline in muscle strength warrants further studies.

2020 ◽  
Vol 14 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S407-S408
A Oliveira ◽  
M P Costa-Santos ◽  
C Frias Gomes ◽  
J Sabino ◽  
A Sampaio ◽  

Abstract Background Small studies have shown that the frequency of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is significantly increased after marriage to an individual with the disease relative to what would be expected by chance alone. Furthermore, the offspring of these couples have a significantly increased risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to identify couples where both spouses have IBD and their offspring in a larger cohort and to characterise their phenotype. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including couples where both members were affected with IBD and their offspring. An electronic survey in seven languages was distributed by the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization (ECCO), European Federation of Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis Associations (EFCCA) and national patient′s associations from June 2018 to December 2019. Results We identified 51 couples where both members had IBD. There was consanguinity in one couple. There was a representation of couples living in nine different countries. Thirty (59%) couples were concordant for IBD, 14 for Crohn’s disease (CD) and 16 for ulcerative colitis (UC). Within 49 couples, 21 (43%) were diagnosed prior to cohabitation, in 7 (14%) one spouse was diagnosed before and the other after a mean of 7.2 ± 8.9 years after cohabitation, and in 21 (43%) the onset of disease was after cohabitation for both (the first member developed IBD after a mean of 8.3 ± 8.4 years of cohabitation and the second one 4.1 ± 4.5 years after the first). The prevalence of IBD in the 58 children born from these couples was 9%. The cumulative probability of developing disease in the progeny was 3% at 10 years, 11% at 15 years and 15% at 20 years of age. Conclusion This survey identified 51 couples with IBD across Europe; 59% were concordant for IBD type and in 57% the diagnosis of at least one spouse was made after cohabitation. In a wider population, the risk for the progeny was at most 15% at the age of 20, lower than previously reported.

BMJ ◽  
2019 ◽  
pp. l6491 ◽  
Michael L Anderson ◽  
Fangwen Lu ◽  
Jun Yang

AbstractObjectiveTo determine the implications of car ownership for physical activity and weight in a global city.DesignQuasi-experimental cross sectional study.SettingBeijing, China, 2011-15.ParticipantsPeople aged 18 and older from a random sample of households who had entered a permit lottery to purchase a vehicle between January 2011 and November 2015.InterventionsPermit allowing purchase of a vehicle within six months of permit issuance.Main outcome measuresTransit use (number of subway and bus rides each week), physical activity (minutes of walking or bicycling each day), and weight, measured once in early 2016.ResultsOf 937 people analysed in total, 180 had won a permit to purchase a new vehicle. Winning the permit lottery resulted in the purchase of an additional vehicle 91% of the time (95% confidence interval 89% to 94%; P<0.001). About five years after winning, winners took significantly fewer weekly transit rides (−2.9 rides (−5.1 to −0.7); P=0.01) and walked and cycled significantly less (−24.2 minutes (−40.3 to −8.1); P=0.003) than those who did not win the lottery. Average weight did not change significantly between lottery winners and losers. Among those aged 50 and older, however, winners’ weight had increased relative to that of losers (10.3 kg (0.5 to 20.2); P=0.04) 5.1 years after winning.ConclusionsThese data indicate that vehicle ownership in a rapidly growing global city led to long term reductions in physical activity and increase in weight. Continuing increases in car use and ownership in developing and middle income countries could adversely affect physical health and obesity rates.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. e0243410
Md. Masud Rana ◽  
Md. Reazul Karim ◽  
Md. Abdul Wadood ◽  
Md. Mahbubul Kabir ◽  
Md. Mahidul Alam ◽  

Background Until now, no vaccine or effective drug is available for the control, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19. Preventive measures are the only ways to be protected from the disease and knowledge of the people about the preventive measures is a vital matter. Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of the general people in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh regarding the COVID-19 preventive measures. Methodology This cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 25, 2020. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire from 436 adult respondents selected by using a mixed sampling technique. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and logistic regression model were utilized in this study. SPSS (IBM, Version 22) was used for data analysis. 95% confidence interval and p-value = 0.05 were accepted for statistical significance. Results Only 21.6% of the respondents had good knowledge of the COVID-19 preventive measures. The highest 67.2% of them knew that washing hands with soap could prevent the disease, but contrarily, the highest 72.5% did not know that avoidance of touching mouth, nose, and eyes without washing hands was a preventive measure. Only 28.4% and 36.9% of the respondents knew that maintaining physical distancing and avoiding mass gatherings were measures of prevention of COVID-19 respectively. The younger age (≤25 years), low family income (≤15,000 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT), occupation others than business and service, and nuclear family had the lower odds of having no/less knowledge about the preventive measures. Conclusions The knowledge level of the general people regarding prevention of COVID-19 was alarmingly low in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh, health policy makers and donor agencies should consider the findings and take immediate steps for improving knowledge of the public about prevention of the disease.

2008 ◽  
Vol 126 (6) ◽  
pp. 333-336 ◽  
Ana Claudia Camargo Campos ◽  
Ruffo Freitas-Junior ◽  
Luiz Fernando Jubé Ribeiro ◽  
Régis Resende Paulinelli ◽  
Cleomenes Reis

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Empirical discussion regarding an association between koilocytosis and vulvovaginitis often occurs. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginitis in women with and without koilocytosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study including two cohorts of women (with and without koilocytosis) who attended a cancer hospital in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás. METHODS: A total of 102 patients entered the study. The whiff test, Gram and Papanicolaou staining and bacterial and fungal culturing were performed. The results were observed using univariate analysis. The odds ratio and confidence interval (CI) of the variables were calculated; P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of bacterial colonization was similar in patients with and without koilocytosis. The odds ratio for candidiasis was 1.43 (CI 1.05-1.95) and the odds ratio for trichomoniasis was 1.78 (CI 1.49-2.12), in patients with koilocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis seems to be higher in patients with koilocytosis.

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