Qarābādhīn (Pharmacopoeia) in Greeco-Arabian era : A Historical and Regulatory Perspective

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 388
Mohd Akhtar Ali ◽  

Qarābādhīn can be termed as pharmacopoeia, contains compiled form of compound formulations or recipes. Importance of Qarābādhīn gradually increased and acquired an imperative status. The history of Qarābādhīn starts from Chiron, Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen in Greco-Roman era. Many of early and medieval Islamic and Arab physicians play vital role and immense original contribution in this discipline and authored important and essential Qarābādhīn with systemic and scientific approaches. Although some of them could not reach the present day, many of the manuscripts can be found in various libraries across the world. Since the Arab Caliphates appreciated and patronized the fields of medicine acquired from Greeks and worked for its development, this period also known as “Greco-Arabic era”. In this work the evaluation of Qarābādhīn (particularly written in Arabic or Greek language) was done in historical and regulatory perspective particularly in Greek era and later on in Medieval Islamic era. The findings of the review indicate the importance and regulatory status of Qarābādhīn and provide information about it. It can be helpful to explore Qarābādhīn and related publications of Greek and Medieval Islamic Arabic period, which gives foundations for the present-day pharmacopeias. Since these documents also take into account ethical considerations, its utility in the fields of medicine and medical ethics should be investigated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 388-404

Louise Peacock

AbstractClowning for refugees, clown performances in refugee camps or conflict zones is a performative practice which has existed for almost 30 years. However, very little academic attention has been paid to performance of this kind. This article, therefore, outlines the history of clowning with refugees (drawing on the practice of Clowns without Borders (CWB), the primary organisation in this field and on the work of other individual clowns). It establishes the key principles which guide this kind of performance, focusing on the practitioners’ emphasis on the therapeutic power of laughter and play, particularly, but not exclusively, for children. Drawing on interviews with practitioners, email questionnaires, videos of clown refugee performance, internet newspaper articles and published material, the techniques and strategies of clown performances in refugee settings are explored through three examples of practical encounters. These case studies (CWB in Lesotho, Circus2Iraq and Mimi the Clown working with the Red Cross in Tunisia) facilitate the exploration of the aims of such work and how such performances might best be evaluated. Whilst the article’s focus is on examining the performative and therapeutic nature of clowning, play and laughter on those who experience clown performances; the fact that such performances take place in difficult and potentially dangerous settings also raises issues in relation to cultural and ethical considerations which are also explored.

Christopher Lyons ◽  
David S Crawford

Sir William Osler bequeathed his library to McGill University in 1919, and the 8000 volumes arrived in Montreal a decade later. Then, as now, the collection consisted of both primary works (rare books) and secondary commentaries, and current works on the history of the health sciences. In the last 80 years, the collection has grown considerably, and the library now adds about 1000 books each year, mainly current publications, and receives 200 current serial titles. The Osler Library, which is one of the largest "history of medicine" libraries in the world and the largest in Canada, tries to collect current material on the history of the health sciences from all over the world and attempts to collect all medical history published in Canada. The Osler offers its resources to researchers through its Web site, publications, and Research Travel Grant program.

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Christopher Lyons ◽  
David Crawford

Sir william Osler bequeathed his library to Mcgill University in 1919; a decade later, the 8000 volumes arrived in Montreal. Then, as now, the collection consisted of primary works (“rare books”), secondary commentaries, and current works on the history of the health sciences. In the last 80 years the collection has grown considerably and the library now adds about 1,000 books to its collection yearly (mainly current publications) and receives 200 current serial titles. The Osler Library is one of the largest “history of medicine” libraries in the world and the largest of its kind in Canada. The library tries to collect current material on the history of the health sciences from all over the world and attempts to collect all medical history published in Canada. The Osler offers its resources to researchers and students through its website, publications and Research Travel grant programme.

IEE Review ◽  
1991 ◽  
Vol 37 (10) ◽  
pp. 355
D.A. Gorham

2019 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 01016
Dmitriy Koshlakov ◽  
Marina Khokhlova ◽  
Galina Tsareva ◽  
Galina Garbuzova

The paper is devoted to eponyms used in scientific discourse. The concept of the eponym is borrowed from linguistic research. The term is understood from epistemological standpoint. It is stated that eponyms realize two functions in the language of science – cognitive and communicative. It is also stressed that to some extend eponyms connect two worlds – the world of ideas and the world of people, or, more specifically, the world of abstract concepts and the world of scientists, who study these abstract concepts. Historical examples (cases) demonstrating some features of functioning eponyms are given and discussed. The main historical example for the study is the history of discovering Lorentz’s transformations, which had a significant impact on forming the theory of special relativity. In addition, the paper gives the analysis of some other examples, in particular, related to such terms as Halley's comet, L'Hospital rule, Russell's paradox. It is noted that the fact of discovering some scientific object by one or another scientist in general is not the only reason for forming an eponym containing the name of this scientist. The formation of eponyms is influenced by many other factors, including social and political ones.

Interpreting ◽  
1999 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-95 ◽  
Walter Keiser

This article attempts to cover the history of the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) from its beginnings in the early fifties to present day challenges and recent developments. As AIIC evolved and its membership increased to about 2500 members around the world, so did its complexity. Its evolution mirrors the coming of age of a profession with the concomitant challenges that every profession and professional organization must face today: safeguarding standards of quality, maintaining and improving working conditions, the forces of deregulation and changes brought about by new technologies. AIIC can look back on solid accomplishments covering most every facet of the profession, its achievements serving professional interpreters around the world, whether they are members of AIIC or not.

2010 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 67
Joel Cracraft

The Australian avifauna is one of the most biologically important in the world. For its size, it has the highest diversity and endemism of any continent. Importantly, as a key piece of Gondwana, it was at a crossroads for the early history of modern birds (Neornithes). Indeed, it has phylogenetically deep lineages of palaeognaths, galliforms, anseriforms, caprimulgiforms, parrots, and songbirds. Moreover, patterns of endemism and diversity are well-marked and provide a natural laboratory for the study of speciation and diversification. All of this is why studies of the systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds are so important, for without a clear understanding of the taxonomic limits of taxa and their relationships we cannot hope to make progress toward answering critical evolutionary questions. Nor can we provide the systematic framework for comparative studies in the organismal sciences, especially behaviour, ecology, and conservation biology.

2009 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Helen M. Cohn

This bibliography, in geographic terms, covers principally Australia, but also New Zealand, New Guinea and other islands of the Pacific Ocean near Australia, and Antarctica. It includes material on the history of the natural sciences (mathematics, physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences), some of the applied sciences (including medical and health sciences, agriculture, manufacturing and engineering), and human sciences (psychology, anthropology and sociology). Biographical material on practitioners in these sciences is also of interest. The sources used in compiling this bibliography include those that have proved useful in the past in finding relevant citations. The library catalogues of the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, the National Library of Australia and the National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Matauranga O Aotearoa were particularly useful sources of information. Journals that have yielded articles for previous bibliographies were checked, as were some titles that have not previously been scanned. Hence a number of citations are included that were published earlier than 2008. Assistance has been received from a number of people who sent items or information about items published in 2008 for inclusion in the bibliography. In particular, Professor Rod Home has been most helpful in forwarding relevant citations. Staff of the eScholarship Research Centre at the University of Melbourne, especially Helen Morgan, were of great assistance in the preparation of this bibliography. Readers may have access to information about relevant books, journal articles, conference papers, reports, Master's and PhD theses and reviews published in 2009. They are encouraged to send such information to the compiler at the above email address for inclusion in future bibliographies.

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