scholarly journals Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Oral Cancer: An Overview

Dipayan Mojumder ◽  
Satabdi Paul ◽  
Anupam Podder

Oral cancer is one of the six leading cancers in the world and is a constant threat to the health sector in developing countries as well as developed ones. Late presentation, due to lack of awareness and invasive incisional biopsy is the crucial factor for this. Nowadays, scientists are trying to find out an easy and reliable method of early diagnosis of oral cancer and molecular biomarkers might be very helpful for that. This review was aimed to evaluate the published literature on molecular biomarkers which are related to oral cancer. For this, advanced searching was applied by specific keywords in PubMed-Medline resource database and found 12466 publications were clinical trials on humans. Then after applying all inclusion criteria, 19 articles were included finally in the review. This paper uncovered that recognition of biomarkers will be useful for the early detection of oral cancer and their prognosis after treatment. We can suggest that p53, EGFR, miR-34a, miR-143 estimation is important to decide the conceivable risk of oral malignant growth advancement in the speculated oral lesion and after the curative procedure EGFR, Podoplanin and miR-21can aid us regarding the prognosis of patient.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 11-16

Endurance Uzobo ◽  
Aboluwaji D Ayinmoro

Background As it is common with the most devastating events in the world, women always seem to be at the most disadvantage position. This situation manifested during the period of COVID-19 lockdown throughout the world and Africa in particular. The purpose of this study is to explore Domestic Violence (DV) cases in African during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods Data for this study were gleaned from an electronic literature search using various databases PubMed and BioMed Central, Web of Science, etc. Key search words were gender DV during and after COVID-19. A total of 68 records were identified during the search. However, only 46 of these sources met the inclusion criteria. Results From the review done in selected African countries which include Egypt, South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana and Zimbabwe; it was discovered that COVID-19 lockdown across these countries worsens the already existing cases of DV. The study also noted that generally, the response of the government has been very poor in terms of dealing with DV cases in the period of COVID-19 lockdown. Conclusion The study concluded that despite the failures of government in tackling the DV pandemics, NGOs have been very active in championing the cause of those violated while also trying to provide succour to victims. Thus, the study recommended that countries in Africa need to join international initiatives in prioritising DV cases while trying to deal with the virus itself. Thus, one disease should not be traded for another.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (5) ◽  
pp. 438
Jagadish Hosmani ◽  
Shazia Mushtaq ◽  
Shahabe Saquib Abullais ◽  
Hussain Mohammed Almubarak ◽  
Khalil Assiri ◽  

Background and Objectives: Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer in the world and oral leukoplakia is an oral potentially malignant disorder that could develop into oral cancer. This systematic review focusses on randomized clinical trials for recombinant adenovirus p-53 (rAD-p53) therapy for the treatment of oral leukoplakia and cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched for research articles on various databases such as Pubmed/Medline, Embase, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infra-structure), Springerlink, cochrane and Web of sciences from 2003 to 2020. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were used for the search. Inclusion criteria included original research, randomized clinical trials and articles only in English language. Exclusion criteria were any articles that were not research articles, not randomized trials, non-human studies, etc. The articles were further graded on the Jadad scale. Results: 578 articles were assessed from various databases; only 3 articles were found to be appropriate for this review. Thus, meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity and lack of data. In the three studies, whether rAD-p53 was used as a standalone therapy or with other therapies, there was a beneficial effect of the therapy. Furthermore, there were no serious adverse events and the only adverse events reported were fever, pain at the local injection site, flu-like symptoms and lowered WBC count. Conclusions: Thus, we can conclude that this therapy has a potential for beneficial therapeutic effects and further clinical trials with more patients need to be performed to get better understanding of the effect of rAD-p53 therapy, which probably will pave the way to its approval in other parts of the world.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 364-368
Ishani Gupta ◽  
Rekha Rani ◽  
Jyotsna Suri

Oral cancer is one of a major health problem in some parts of the world especially in the developing countries. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world whereas in India it is one of the most prevalent cancer. Oral cavity lesions are usually asymptomatic. Accurate diagnosis of the lesion is the first step for the proper management of patients and histopathology is considered as the gold standard. The objective is to study the different patterns of oral cavity lesions seen in a tertiary care hospital of Jammu: One year retrospective study. Post graduate department of pathology.: It was a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care centre for a period of one year from March 2020 to Feb 2021. 148 cases of oral cavity lesions were included in this study. The parameters that were included in the study were sociodemographic data, site of the lesion, clinical features and histological diagnosis. Data collected was analysed.148 cases of oral lesions were identified during the period of study. The age of patients varied from 5 to 78years and Male to Female ratio was 2.2:1. Buccal mucosa (30%) was the most common site involved which was followed by tonsil (19%). Out of 148 cases 70 cases were malignant, 10 cases pre malignant and 21 cases were benign. Squamous cell carcinoma (33.7%) was the most common lesion present in our study. Oral cavity lesions have a vast spectrum of diseases which range from tumour like lesions to benign and malignant tumours. Our study concluded that squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant lesion of oral cavity. Histological typing of the lesion is important for confirmation of malignancy and it is essential for the proper management of the patient.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Fortune Effiong ◽  
Abdulhammed opeyemi Babatunde ◽  
Olaoluwa Ezekiel Dada ◽  
Kenneth Enwerem

Context: The transmission of COVID-19 was reported to have started at a Seafood Market in Wuhan, China predominantly through droplets from coughing and sneezing. Gatherings like schools, religious and worship centers as well as market places are usually densely populated and congested thereby facilitating the spread of the virus via droplets. This research aims to explore the transmission of COVID-19 in schools, religious gatherings and markets. Evidence Acquisition: Literature search of available evidences was conducted on biomedical databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords, and articles that met inclusion criteria were selected. Results: Results show that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been recorded in schools, religious centres and market places in different countries and regions. Transmission was found to be less prevalent among school children unlike in influenza outbreaks due to some notable factors highlighted in the articles. Numerous evidences stated cases of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 linked to intimacy and close contacts in religious gatherings. Transmission in market place marked the genesis of the pandemic at Huanan Seafood Wholesales Market, Wuhan although only limited evidences are available about transmission in other market places in the world. Conclusions: Although these gatherings are seen to be vital to our daily lives, they are risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. It is important for government to ensure strict compliance to the COVID-19 protocols in order mitigate the spread of the virus causing the current pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Naeem Abas ◽  
Esmat Kalair ◽  
Saad Dilshad ◽  
Nasrullah Khan

PurposeThe authors present the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on community lifelines. The state machinery has several departments to secure essential lifelines during disasters and epidemics. Many countries have formed national disaster management authorities to deal with manmade and natural disasters. Typical lifelines include food, water, safety and security, continuity of services, medicines and healthcare equipment, gas, oil and electricity supplies, telecommunication services, transportation means and education system. Supply chain systems are often affected by disasters, which should have alternative sources and routes. Doctors, nurses and medics are front-line soldiers against diseases during pandemics.Design/methodology/approachThe COVID-19 pandemic has revealed how much we all are connected yet unprepared for natural disasters. Political leaders prioritize infrastructures, education but overlook the health sector. During the recent pandemic, developed countries faced more mortalities, fatalities and casualties than developing countries. This work surveys the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health, energy, environment, industry, education and food supply lines.FindingsThe COVID-19 pandemic caused 7% reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during global lockdowns. In addition, COVID-19 has affected social fabric, behaviors, cultures and official routines. Around 2.84 bn doses have been administrated, with approximately 806 m people (10.3% of the world population) are fully vaccinated around the world to date. Most developed vaccines are being evaluated for new variants like alpha, beta, gamma, epsilons and delta first detected in the UK, South Africa, Brazil, USA and India. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors in society, yet this paper critically reviews the impact of COVID-19 on health and energy lifelines.Practical implicationsThis paper critically reviews the health and energy lifelines during pandemic COVID-19 and explains how these essential services were interrupted.Originality/valueThis paper critically reviews the health and energy lifelines during pandemic COVID-19 and explains how these essential services were interrupted.

2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 443
Saeed Hussein Alhmoud ◽  
Çiğdem Çağnan ◽  
Enis Faik Arcan

As the wave of sustainability is sweeping across the major countries and cities of the world, the effect of the inevitable change is finding its way through to the health sector as well. Since the main functions of the hospital include healing the patient, it aims to provide adequate health services to people. Hospitals managers should strive to realize facilities that meet a certain level of demand. This study aims to present the interior environmental quality (IEQ) of bedrooms in Jordanian hospitals and propose a solution to improve indoor environment quality using sustainable design principles. A qualitative research methodology is used in this study. A comparative analysis is made between the original set up of the hospital buildings and the present conditions in which they are in. During the research, it was found that the design to be applied for a hospital should be following the healing environmental characteristics. Besides, the design of hospitals should be made with the climatic conditions of the area in mind. In the advanced countries of the world, hospitals are generally built with extensive research and important factors such as temperature, wind direction and humidity are taken into consideration. The design for a hospital building should be assessed according to the German Green Building Assessment (DGNB) criteria. It has been found that the one-bedroom is ideal for patients because it provides the necessary privacy and also greatly reduces the spread of the disease. In hygienic practices, there should be a first-class healing environment with evidence-based medical research. It was concluded that the practices involving the use of sustainable designs can be followed with the hints received from hospitals in the advanced countries of the world. Keywords: Jordan hospital; IEQ; bedroom; interior design; healthcare; green building assessment; DGNB

2019 ◽  
Romina Vivaldi ◽  
Richard P. Jolley ◽  
Sarah E Rose

Pictorial symbols have multiple layers of meaning: not only do they represent objects, events and ideas about the world, they also represent the intentions of artists as well as other artist attributes (age, skill, originality and knowledge, mood, style and sentience). Although children’s developmental milestones of pictorial understanding have been the subject of a long-standing debate, their understanding of the relation between artists and pictures has often been neglected. The aim of this article was to conduct a systematic review on children’s and adolescents’ understanding of the relation between artists and pictures. PsycINFO and Web of Science databases were searched for English, Spanish, German, and Italian language empirical studies that examined this link in 2- to 18-year- olds. Forty-two citations (64 studies) from 14 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Results revealed the majority of the studies focused on the understanding of the artist’s intention. Although research on children’s and adolescents’ understanding of other attributes is scarce, and there were inconsistencies across the methodologies used, it seems that they first acknowledge intention and only later become more aware of how artist’s attributes are communicated through intention. The results of the review encourage subsequent research to provide a clearer conceptualised model of child and adolescent understanding of the artist-picture relationship. Such a model should be placed within a wider framework of the network of relationship between the artist, picture, world and beholder. Finally, consideration of how the development of understanding the artist-picture relationship is bi-directionally influenced with other developmental milestones in the child psychology is encouraged, particularly picture-production and theory of mind, and variations in atypical populations.

2020 ◽  
Anjli Sharma ◽  
Anjana Mishra ◽  
Manik Soni ◽  
Vijay Chaudhary

Medoroga is a condition in which there is an excessive accumulation of Meda Dhatu in the body. Accumulation of Medo Dhatu in different parts of the body causes blockage of Strotsa which ultimately leads to poor nourishment of other Dhathus. Lack of exercises and Kaphavardhak Ahar Viharar are the two main causes of Medoroga. In modern times, way of life has changed drastically to quick nourishments and inactive tendencies throughout the world. Because of these factors, accumulation of Meda dhatu happens immensely. In Ayurveda, dyslipidemia is considered under Medoroga. Dyslipidemia is an emerging serious health abnormality associated with co-morbidities including CVD that continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. It is characterized by an increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL levels, and a decrease in HDL levels. The present study has been designed to compare the efficacy of Triphala Kwath and Trikatu capsules on various clinical parameters in the management of Medoroga w.s.r to dyslipidemia. Twenty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly selected for the trial and put into two groups of ten patients each. Trikatu capsules were given to patients in group I and Triphla kwath with Madhu and Trikatu capsules in combination were given to patients of group II for 8 weeks. Patients were thoroughly assessed on various scientific parameters during the complete trial period. In group II, a significant (p<0.001) improvement was observed in subjective parameters and serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL levels while in group I, a significant (p<0.001) improvement was observed in HDL only. It may affirmatively be construed from the study that the best impact of the trial drugs was observed with Triphala Kwatha with Madhu and Trikatu Capsule together (i.e. Group II). This combination therapy was most effective in reducing the overall lipid profile with substantial gains related to subjective as well as objective parameters without any adverse effects.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-26
Tobiloba Christiana Elebiyo ◽  
Damilare Rotimi ◽  
Rotdelmwa Maimako Asaleye ◽  
Boluwatife Boluwatife Afolabi ◽  
Bukola Taiwo Atunwa ◽  

The world is going green; hence, environmentally friendly practices that would conserve natural resources for the future generation are encouraged. As a consequence, the world is less concerned about the numerous applications of nanotechnology, especially in the health sector; rather, it is more concerned about the sustainability of functionalized nanomaterials. Thus, the future of nanotechnology depends on its ability to ‘go green'. Green nanotechnology attempts to synthesize improved, nontoxic, and biocompatible nanomaterials with sustainable benefits using eco-friendly materials. Although green nanotechnology is considered a sustainable, viable, and biocompatible approach to the production of eco-friendly nanomaterials, there are shortcomings especially in microbial handling and process optimization. In this chapter, the authors aim to appraise not only the use of biocompatible approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles and/or nanomaterials but also their shortcomings.

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Masoud Mohammadi ◽  
Mohsen Kazeminia ◽  
Nasrin Abdoli ◽  
Behnam Khaledipaveh ◽  
Shamarina Shohaimi ◽  

Abstract Background Opioids addiction and misuse are among the major problems in the world today. There have been several preliminary studies examining the effect of methadone on depression among addicts, however, these studies have reported inconsistent and even contradictory results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of methadone on depression in addicts in Iran and around the world, using a meta-analysis approach. Methods This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis including articles published in the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically to find articles published from 2006 to March 2019. Heterogeneity index was determined using the Cochran's test (Qc) and I2. Considering heterogeneity of studies, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized difference of mean score for depression. Subsequently, the level of depression reduction in Iran and worldwide in the intervention group before and after the testwas measured. Results A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria, and were therefore selected for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The sample size of the intervention group in the selected studies was 1948. According to the meta-analysis results, the mean depression score in the intervention group was 26.4 ± 5.6 and 18.4 ± 2.6 before and after intervention respectively, indicating the reducing effect of methadone on depression, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion The results of the present study show that methadone significantly reduces depression in addicts. Therefore, regular methadone use can be part of a drug treatment plan.

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