scholarly journals Gravity concentration of minerals - natural phenomena and industrial practice

R. Bhima Rao ◽  
Y. Lokeswara Reddy
2020 ◽  
Vol 29 (4) ◽  
pp. 741-757
Kateryna Hazdiuk ◽  
Volodymyr Zhikharevich ◽  
Serhiy Ostapov ◽  

This paper deals with the issue of model construction of the self-regeneration and self-replication processes using movable cellular automata (MCAs). The rules of cellular automaton (CA) interactions are found according to the concept of equilibrium neighborhood. The method is implemented by establishing these rules between different types of cellular automata (CAs). Several models for two- and three-dimensional cases are described, which depict both stable and unstable structures. As a result, computer models imitating such natural phenomena as self-replication and self-regeneration are obtained and graphically presented.

Maxim B. Demchenko ◽  

The sphere of the unknown, supernatural and miraculous is one of the most popular subjects for everyday discussions in Ayodhya – the last of the provinces of the Mughal Empire, which entered the British Raj in 1859, and in the distant past – the space of many legendary and mythological events. Mostly they concern encounters with inhabitants of the “other world” – spirits, ghosts, jinns as well as miraculous healings following magic rituals or meetings with the so-called saints of different religions (Hindu sadhus, Sufi dervishes),with incomprehensible and frightening natural phenomena. According to the author’s observations ideas of the unknown in Avadh are codified and structured in Avadh better than in other parts of India. Local people can clearly define if they witness a bhut or a jinn and whether the disease is caused by some witchcraft or other reasons. Perhaps that is due to the presence in the holy town of a persistent tradition of katha, the public presentation of plots from the Ramayana epic in both the narrative and poetic as well as performative forms. But are the events and phenomena in question a miracle for the Avadhvasis, residents of Ayodhya and its environs, or are they so commonplace that they do not surprise or fascinate? That exactly is the subject of the essay, written on the basis of materials collected by the author in Ayodhya during the period of 2010 – 2019. The author would like to express his appreciation to Mr. Alok Sharma (Faizabad) for his advice and cooperation.

2015 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 217-229
Elya Umi Hanik

This article discusses about the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) as an innovation of learning science in elementary schools. In fact, the practical implementation of learning is still focused on the teacher as the main actor in which instruction is the dominant strategy in the learning process. Basically CTL is a concept of learning that helps educators link between what is taught with real-world situations of students and encourages them to make connections between the knowledge possessed and implemented in their lives. The concept of CTL applied in science teaching course could have implications, especially in learning to understand the natural phenomena that are not only conceptual. In consequence, students can receive full knowledge built through real experiences.

Marcel Escudier

In this chapter the wide array of engineering devices, from the kitchen tap (a valve) to supersonic aircraft, the basic design of which depends upon considerations of the flow of gases and liquids, is shown. Much the same is true of most natural phenomena from the atmosphere and our weather to ocean waves, and the movement of sperm and other bodily fluids. In this textbook a number of the concepts, principles, and procedures which underlie the analysis of any problem involving fluid flow or a fluid at rest are introduced. In this Introduction, examples have been selected for which, by the end of the book, the student should be in a position to make practically useful engineering-design calculations. These include a dam, a rocket motor, a supersonic aerofoil with shock and expansion waves, a turbojet engine, a turbofan engine, and the blading of a gas turbine.

Massimiliano Di Ventra

This chapter defines what phenomena and objective data are and how the latter ones are obtained, and explains the fundamental role of experiments in obtaining information on the material world.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 250
Jiří Hájek ◽  
Zaneta Dlouha ◽  
Vojtěch Průcha

This article is a response to the state of the art in monitoring the cooling capacity of quenching oils in industrial practice. Very often, a hardening shop requires a report with data on the cooling process for a particular quenching oil. However, the interpretation of the data can be rather difficult. The main goal of our work was to compare various criteria used for evaluating quenching oils. Those of which prove essential for operation in tempering plants would then be introduced into practice. Furthermore, the article describes monitoring the changes in the properties of a quenching oil used in a hardening shop, the effects of quenching oil temperature on its cooling capacity and the impact of the water content on certain cooling parameters of selected oils. Cooling curves were measured (including cooling rates and the time to reach relevant temperatures) according to ISO 9950. The hardening power of the oil and the area below the cooling rate curve as a function of temperature (amount of heat removed in the nose region of the Continuous cooling transformation - CCT curve) were calculated. V-values based on the work of Tamura, reflecting the steel type and its CCT curve, were calculated as well. All the data were compared against the hardness and microstructure on a section through a cylinder made of EN C35 steel cooled in the particular oil. Based on the results, criteria are recommended for assessing the suitability of a quenching oil for a specific steel grade and product size. The quenching oils used in the experiment were Houghto Quench C120, Paramo TK 22, Paramo TK 46, CS Noro MO 46 and Durixol W72.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 213
Vanessa Sesto ◽  
Isabel García-Rodeja

Many studies have been conducted in recent years on the explanations given by preschool-age children about different natural phenomena. Nonetheless, very few studies have actually focused on the important domain of matter and its transformations. Specifically, the field of chemical reactions remains unexplored. This qualitative study aims to investigate the explanations of twenty-two 5- to 6-year-old children about combustion, while at the same time evaluating the effect of prior experience with science activities on their interpretations. For this study, the following experiment was proposed: burning a candle inside an inverted vessel. The following data collection tools were used: a Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy and audio and video recordings. The children’s explanations were analysed using classification frameworks, which had been developed in previous studies. The results of this study suggest that young children tend to provide naturalistic explanations about combustion. This finding is an indicator that young children are able to construct mental representations within this conceptual domain. Likewise, the results indicate that children who are used to engaging in inquiry-based activities may be more likely to establish a relationship with previous learning experiences to interpret other natural phenomena.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (5) ◽  
pp. 1827
Piotr Cofta ◽  
Kostas Karatzas ◽  
Cezary Orłowski

The growing popularity of inexpensive IoT (Internet of Things) sensor networks makes their uncertainty an important aspect of their adoption. The uncertainty determines their fitness for purpose, their perceived quality and the usefulness of information they provide. Nevertheless, neither the theory nor the industrial practice of uncertainty offer a coherent answer on how to address uncertainty of networks of this type and their components. The primary objective of this paper is to facilitate the discussion of what progress should be made regarding the theory and the practice of uncertainty of IoT sensor networks to satisfy current needs. This paper provides a structured overview of uncertainty, specifically focusing on IoT sensor networks. It positions IoT sensor networks as contrasted with professional measurement and control networks and presents their conceptual sociotechnical reference model. The reference model advises on the taxonomy of uncertainty proposed in this paper that demonstrates semantic differences between various views on uncertainty. This model also allows for identifying key challenges that should be addressed to improve the theory and practice of uncertainty in IoT sensor networks.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (8) ◽  
pp. 2247
Mirosław Słowiński ◽  
Joanna Miazek ◽  
Krzysztof Dasiewicz ◽  
Marta Chmiel

A beneficial aspect of the use of fiber preparations in the meat industry is the improvement of some quality characteristics of meat products. However, the preparation added in the amount of 3 or 6% may affect their color. The effect of the addition of barley, wheat and oat fiber preparations with different fiber lengths, in quantities allowing the product to be indicated as “high in fiber” or “source of fiber”, to pasteurized or sterilized medium-grounded canned meat products on their color, was determined. In the obtained canned meat products, the basic chemical composition and the L*, a* and b*, C* (Chroma) and h* (hue angle) color components were determined. The addition of the barley fiber preparation BG 300 to the model canned meat products caused a significant (p ≤ 0.05) darkening and an increase in the proportion of yellow color. In an industrial practice, this may result in poorer consumer acceptance of the meat product. Fiber length of wheat and barley fiber had no effect on the color components of products. The 6% addition of the wheat fiber preparations WF 200R and WF 600R or the oat fiber preparations HF 200 and HF 600 caused an apparent lightening of their color (ΔE > 2) compared to the control products.

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