scholarly journals Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Desferrioxamine B and the New Desferrioxamine B2 Antibiotics from a Brown Marine Macroalga Carpodesmia tamariscifolia Associated Streptomyces Isolate

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 5647-5662

Today, emerging infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are a major public health problem. These bacteria are gradually becoming more resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Thus, there is an urgent requirement to explore new antimicrobial compounds. This study focuses on a screening program of marine actinobacteria for useful bioactive compounds against MDRB, and four endophytic actinobacteria strain isolated from the unexploited marine brown alga Carpodesmia tamariscifolia, harvested from the Atlantic coast of Morocco, were screened for their antimicrobial activities using the agar diffusion assay. Fermentation broths of the two selected promising isolates KC179 and KC180 were extracted with different organic solvents and showed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From the butanolic extract of KC180's culture broth and in addition to the known metabolite desferrioxamine B, a new desferrioxamine derivative, desferrioxamine B2, was purified using flash chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC, and its structure was elucidated using HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. The 16S rRNA molecular taxonomic characterization of the producing strain KC180 showed Streptomyces albidoflavus as the nearest relative, with a sequence similarity of 99.71 %.

2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-28 ◽  
Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab Uddin ◽  
Md Abdullah Yusuf ◽  
Zubair Ahmed Ratan

The rapid spread and dissemination of the multidrug-resistant bacteria worldwide represents a major public health problem. The development of antibiotics decreased the mortality among the human and animals leading to a better life expectancy. But the injudicious use of antimicrobials and selection pressure the microbes have developed resistance which became more prominent during last few decades. With the evolution of Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hospital-acquired MRSA, Communityacquired MRSA and MDR TB (Multidrug resistant tuberculosis) challenge for the clinicians have increased to a greater extent. The global emergence and dissemination of acquired carbapenemases among gram negative bacteria are considered a major public health problem. Gram-negative bacteria, most notably Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are among the most important causes of serious hospital-acquired and community-onset bacterial infections in humans, and resistance to antimicrobial agents in these bacteria has become an increasingly relevant problem. Recent development in nanotechnology based drug delivery system may prove to be solution for combating these resistant bacteria. However policies and regulations for antibiotic use should be formulated to control the further development of resistance among the microbes.Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2017;4(1):25-28

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (24) ◽  
pp. 2186-2191
Lialyz Soares Pereira André ◽  
Renata Freire Alves Pereira ◽  
Felipe Ramos Pinheiro ◽  
Aislan Cristina Rheder Fagundes Pascoal ◽  
Vitor Francisco Ferreira ◽  

Background: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major public health problem, being Staphylococcus aureus prevalent in infections in hospital and community environments and, admittedly, related to biofilm formation in biotic and abiotic surfaces. Biofilms form a complex and structured community of microorganisms surrounded by an extracellular matrix adhering to each other and to a surface that gives them even more protection from and resistance against the action of antimicrobial agents, as well as against host defenses. Methods: Aiming to control and solve these problems, our study sought to evaluate the action of 1,2,3- triazoles against a Staphylococcus aureus isolate in planktonic and in the biofilm form, evaluating the activity of this triazole through Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) tests. We have also performed cytotoxic evaluation and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the biofilms under the treatment of the compound. The 1,2,3-triazole DAN 49 showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity (MIC and MBC 128 μg/mL). In addition, its presence interfered with the biofilm formation stage (1/2 MIC, p <0.000001) and demonstrated an effect on young preformed biofilm (2 MICs, p <0.05). Results: Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed a reduction in the cell population and the appearance of deformations on the surface of some bacteria in the biofilm under treatment with the compound. Conclusion: Therefore, it was possible to conclude the promising anti-biofilm potential of 1,2,3-triazole, demonstrating the importance of the synthesis of new compounds with biological activity.

2004 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-171 ◽  
Jennifer L. Hunter

Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1) observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2) cancer experience interviews; and (3) case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1) needed changes in health education, (2) screening frequency and age, (3) sites for screening and treatment, (4) type and availability of treatment, (5) payment issues, (6) documentation of care, and (7) the potential of herbal remedies.

Margaret Viola Jillapegu ◽  
Dhishan Sai Kumboju Srinivasulu ◽  
Umamaheswara Raju Sarikonda ◽  
Raghunatha Rao Ponnaluri ◽  
Jahnavi Tiruveedhula

Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent a major public health problem. The overall ADR rate is estimated to be 6.5 and 28% of these are preventable.ADR incidence in Indian population ranges between 1.8-25% with 8% resulting in hospitalization. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the pattern of reported adverse drug reactions with reference to specific drug class and organ system in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried to analyse the ADRs reported over a period of one year (January-December 2019). Individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of all patients of suspected adverse drug reactions seen in various out-patient departments and admitted in the wards of the hospital were included in the study. The ICSRs were analysed for patient demography, causality, severity and with reference to specific drug class and organ system.Results: Among 382 reported ADRs, 27.2% of the ADRs were reported as serious. The most common therapeutic class of drugs causing ADRs where Antimicrobial agents (36.07%). The skin is the most common affected organ system (25.39%).Conclusions: A coordinated system of identifying the ADRs early in the course of treatment and recognizing the preventable ADRs is required by the health care system. The coordination of prescribing physicians and pharmacovigilance personnel can produce better trend of reporting the ADRs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 123-131
Chowdhury Shamima Sultana

HPV infection is estimated to be responsible for about 5% of human cancers worldwide. Among all HPV-associated malignancies, cervical cancer is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Persistent HPV infection is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer with a prevalence of 99.7% in cervical cancer worldwide.At least 70% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18. HPV vaccination in combination with regular screening offers the most effective way for women to be protected against cervical cancer.The global burden of cervical cancer falls heaviest on the developing countries which haven’t introduced the HPV vaccine as part of their national public health strategy to prevent and control cervical cancer. Different studies showed a drop in the prevalence of HPV associated diseases in vaccinated populations. Sustained efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the bHPV vaccine were observed in the final analysis of a follow-up study up to 9.4 years postvaccination. Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. There has been little success with screening program against cervical cancer in Bangladesh. Therefore, a National HPV Vaccination Program seems to be the window of opportunity to reduce the mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer in Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Coll Phys Surg 2021; 39(2): 123-131

N.U. Adabara ◽  
C.E. Amarachi ◽  
A.S. Adedeji ◽  
A. Usman ◽  
M. Maude ◽  

Food borne disease associated with inappropriately treated or untreated eggs is a major public health problem affecting developing and developed countries. This study isolated, identified and determined the Antibiogram of bacteria isolates from eggshell of eggs obtained from three major markets in Minna, Nigeria. A total of ten (10) duplicate egg samples were purchased from egg retailers. The egg samples were analyzed for the enumeration and isolation of bacteria. The isolated bacteria were identified using biochemical methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test to prescribed commercially available antibiotic discs was also investigated. The total viable bacteria count (TVBC) ranged from 1.38×104 - 2.52×104 cfu/mL while the total coliform count (TCC) ranged from 8.5×103 - 2.02×104 cfu/mL. Escherichia coli (9.1%), Streptococcus pyogenes (4.5%), Enterococcus sp. (4.5%), Shigella sp. (13.6%), Salmonella sp. (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (36.4%), Clostridium sp. (9.1%) and Neisseria sp. (9.1%) were isolated and identified from eggshells. Gram positive bacteria showed highest sensitivity to gentamycin (100%) however, resist cloxacillin, ceftadizime and erythromycin (100%). Similarly, there was no ciprofloxacin resistant Gram-negative bacteria though E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. isolated from eggshells were resistant to augmentin and amoxicillin. Further analysis of result revealed that all the isolated bacteria from eggshells were multidrug resistant except Neisseria sp. with multidrug resistant index greater than 0.2. The fact that these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be transferred to humans is of public health concern. Therefore, stringent use of public health regulations for cleaning eggs before retailing is advocated.

2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 31 ◽  
Roshan Colah ◽  
Pallavi Mehta ◽  
Malay Mukherjee

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem in India with the highest prevalence amongst the tribal and some non-tribal ethnic groups. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable ranging from a severe to mild or asymptomatic condition. Early diagnosis and providing care is critical in SCD because of the possibility of lethal complications in early infancy in pre-symptomatic children. Since 2010, neonatal screening programs for SCD have been initiated in a few states of India. A total of 18,003 babies have been screened by automated HPLC using either cord blood samples or heel prick dried blood spots and 2944 and 300 babies were diagnosed as sickle cell carriers and SCD respectively. A follow up of the SCD babies showed considerable variation in the clinical presentation in different population groups, the disease being more severe among non-tribal babies. Around 30% of babies developed serious complications within the first 2 to 2.6 years of life. These pilot studies have demonstrated the feasibility of undertaking newborn screening programs for SCD even in rural areas. A longer follow up of these babies is required and it is important to establish a national newborn screening program for SCD in all of the states where the frequency of the sickle cell gene is very high followed by the development of comprehensive care centers along with counselling and treatment facilities. This comprehensive data will ultimately help us to understand the natural history of SCD in India and also help the Government to formulate strategies for the management and prevention of sickle cell disease in India.

Serhat Sirekbasan ◽  
Serap Süzük Yıldız

Objective: Nowadays, antibiotic resistance is defined as a global public health problem. The World Health Organization aims to raise awareness among users and policy makers by grouping both critically importantl antibiotics and resistant bacteria. In this study, it is aimed to make the bibliometric evaluation of of the literature on the resistance of colistin. Method: Specific keywords associated with colistin resistance were used in Scopus database covering the period between 1947, and 2019. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of retrieved data were presented using appropriate bibliometric indicators, the number, and language of the publications, the countries that contributed mostly to the literature, the most influential institutions, the most frequently cited publications, active writers and active journals. Results: A total of 1454 articles were evaluated. Although the number of articles showed an increase from 2009 to 2015, it was determined that the increases after 2015 were quite dramatical. The most common language in the published articles was English (95.75%) followed by Chinese (1.16%). The United States of America (USA) contributed mostly with 21.46% of the articles followed by China with 16.02% of articles. Approximately 13% of the retrieved articles on colistin resistance were published in the journal of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Conclusion: There has been a dramatical increase in the number of publications on the resistance to colistin, which came into use due to the widespread use of carbapenemases. This bibliometric study is expected to help health policy makers and researcher on the planning and development of policies regarding colistin.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Inha Jung ◽  
Mi Ae Cho ◽  
Eun-Jung Rhee ◽  
Hyemi Kwon ◽  
Cheol-Young Park ◽  

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death. We aimed to analyze the effects of cotinine verified smoking on the development of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, a total of 17,626 men (mean age 37.9 years) who underwent a health screening program in 2011 and 2017 were enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, including urinary cotinine level were measured. The odds ratios (OR) for the presence of diabetes were analyzed in three groups according to their self-reported smoking status (Never smoker; Quitter and Current smoker) and cumulative amount of smoking. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels&gt;50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. Results: Among the total participants without diabetes at baseline, 605 (3.4%) participants had diabetes after 6 years. The risk for diabetes was lower in nonsmokers than in current smokers and quittters after adjusting for confounding factors (OR 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI)0.56-0.89) with current smokers as the reference group. The risks of diabetes were gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. When the participants were analyzed in subgroups according to the urinary cotinine levels, those with high urinary cotinine levels &gt;500ng/mL showed the higher risk for the development of diabetes (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.27 – 1.93). Conclusions: This study showed that cotinine-verified smoking was associated with the development of diabetes. Furthermore, there was a potential association between smoking amounts and the development of diabetes regardless of smoking cessation. We also found that those with high urinary cotinine levels showed an increased risk for diabetes compared with participants with low urinary cotinine levels.

Pathogens ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1007
Emelia Aini Kamaruzzaman ◽  
Saleha Abdul Aziz ◽  
Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus ◽  
Zunita Zakaria ◽  
Latiffah Hassan

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistant bacteria do not recognize animal, human, or geographic boundaries. Addressing this threat requires a multidisciplinary approach involving human, animal, and environmental health (One Health) sectors. This is because antimicrobial agents used in veterinary medicine have been reported to be the same or similar to those in human medicine use. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli is a growing public health problem worldwide, and the agri-food industry is increasingly becoming a source of clinically important ESBL bacteria. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli from dairy cattle, milk, and the farm environment. E. coli isolates were identified by their 16sRNA, and their ESBL production was confirmed using ESBL–CHROMagar media and the double disk diffusion method. Genotypes of ESBL producers were characterized using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay. It was found that 18 (4.8%) of the total samples were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli. Of these, 66.7% were from milk, and 27.8% and 5.5% were from the farm environment and faecal samples, respectively. Predominant ESBL genotypes identified were a combination of both TEM and CTX-M in eight out of 18 (44.4%) isolates. Four (22.2%) isolates produced the CTX-M gene, two (11.1%) isolates produced the TEM gene, and four (22.2%) remaining isolates produced the ESBL genes other than TEM, SHV, CTX-M, and OXA. The SHV and OXA gene were not detected in all 18 isolates. In all, there were four profiles of genetic similarity. The occurrence of these genotypes in indicator organisms from dairy cattle, milk, and the farm environment further re-enforced the potential of food-animals as sources of ESBL-producing E. coli infection in humans via the food chain. Thus, there is the need for the adoption of a tripartite One Health approach in surveillance and monitoring to control antimicrobial resistance.

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