Analysis of Biochemical and Clinical Pregnancy Loss Between Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer of Blastocysts and Day 3 Cleavage Embryos in Young Women: A Comprehensive Comparison
BackgroundTo determine whether the embryo developmental stage affects biochemical or clinical pregnancy loss in young women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) and to investigate the underlying mechanism.MethodsThis was a retrospective study including a total of 18,34 β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)-positive FET cycles. According to the morphological appearance (MA) of transferred blastocysts, FET cycles with blastocysts were divided into two groups: Group A: morphologically good (MG) blastocysts only, and Group B: at least one morphologically non-good (MNG) blastocyst. FET cycles with day 3 cleavage embryos were assigned as Group C. Biochemical and clinical pregnancy loss were the main outcome measures.Result(s)We predicted 78% in vivo-formed MG and 53.9% in vivo-formed day 5 blastocysts in Group C. (a) Including cases in Group A and Group B for binary logistic regression, we showed that Group B and day 6 blastocysts had significantly higher rates of BPL and CPL than Group A and day 5 blastocysts, respectively. (b) Including cases in Group A, Group B, and Group C for binary logistic regression, we showed that Group C had a significantly higher rate of BPL than Group A and day 5 blastocysts and a similar rate of BPL as Group B and day 6 blastocysts. Group C had a higher rate of CPL than Group A (p=0.071) and day 5 blastocysts (p=0.039), and a lower rate of CPL than Group B (p=0.199) and day 6 blastocysts (p=0.234).Conclusion(s)(1) MA and days of usable blastocysts could serve as independent factors affecting the occurrence of BPL and CPL. (2) Transfer of day 3 cleavage embryos may produce “unusable blastocysts” in vivo, which significantly increased the rate of BPL. (3) The rate of CPL resulting from the transfer of day 3 embryos may depend on the rate of in vivo-formed MG or day 5 blastocysts. Our study indicated that the difference in the BPL or CPL between transfer of blastocysts and day 3 cleavage embryos may largely depend on the quality of embryos transferred.