scholarly journals The Antibacterial Activity of Erythrocytes From Goose (Anser domesticus) Can Be Associated With Phagocytosis and Respiratory Burst Generation

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Youcheng Yang ◽  
Jiajun Chen ◽  
Linqing Lu ◽  
Zizheng Xu ◽  
Feng Li ◽  

In the lumen of blood vessels, there are large numbers of erythrocytes, which are approximately 95% of the total blood cells. Although the function of erythrocytes is to transport oxygen in the organism, recent studies have shown that mammalian and teleost erythrocytes are involved in the immune response against bacterial infections. However, the immune mechanisms used by avian erythrocytes are not yet clear. Here, we demonstrated that erythrocytes from goose have the ability to phagocytose as well as conduct antimicrobial activity. Firstly, we revealed the phagocytosis or adhesion activity of goose erythrocytes for latex beads 0.1-1.0 μm in diameter by fluorescence microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The low cytometry results also proved that goose erythrocytes had a wide range of phagocytic or adhesion activity for different bacteria. Followed, the low cytometry analysis data further explored that the goose erythrocytes contain the ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to bacterial stimulation, and also up-regulated the expression of NOX family includes NOX1 and NOX5. Finally, we also found that goose erythrocytes showed a powerful antibacterial activity against all the three bacteria, meanwhile the stimulation of three kinds of bacteria up-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors, and increased the production of antioxidant enzymes to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Herein, our results demonstrate that goose Erythrocytes possess a certain phagocytic capacity and antioxidant system, and that the antimicrobial activity of erythrocytes can occurred through the production of unique respiratory burst against foreign pathogenic bacteria, which provides new clues to the interaction between bacteria and avian erythrocytes.

Ranganathan Kapilan

Wide range of plant extracts are used for medicinal purposes as they are very cheap, efficient, harmless and do not cause any side effects. Spices are parts of different plants and they add special aroma and taste to the food preparations. The aim of the study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of some important naturally grown spices against gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of the spices was tested against gram positive bacteria Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and liquid nutrient extracts. Among all the extracts tested alcoholic extracts of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamom), clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogoncitratus) showed maximum antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria while alcoholic extract of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamom) and lemongrass (Cymbopogoncitratus) showed maximum activity against gram positive bacteria. All the spices tested in this study proved that they have antibacterial activity and the maximum activity index (1.39) was exhibited by the ethanol extract of cardamom against E.coli.

Tamma Noureddine ◽  
Gherraf Noureddine

Butenolides and their analogues represent a wide range of natural compounds of a medical and biological importance. In the last decades, a great number of compounds of various structures, in general from Alkylidene butenolide, were isolated and showed biological activities. In this work we have studied the reactivity of some alkylidene butenolide and their antibacterial activity. the study is of a scientific interest in terms of the synthesis of new compounds (Butenolide 01: 5-hydroxy-5-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one, Butenolide 02: 5-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one) that have not been studied before by other researchers; and of an economic importance because of its synthesis process which is easy and inexpensive. Moreover, butenolide showed a positive antimicrobial activity (antibiotic) against pathogenic bacteria (mainly Enterobacter hafniae).

1970 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 16-20
BA Omogbai ◽  
FA Eze

Context: Plant based antimicrobial represent a vast untapped source for medicines and further exploration of plant antimicrobial neeto occur. Evolvulus alsinoides (L) (Convolvulaceae) is a perennial herb is used in traditional medicine in East Asia, India, Africa and Philippines to cure fever, cough, cold, venereal diseases, azoospermia, adenitis and dementia.   Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of E. alsinoides on some clinical microbial isolates.   Materials and Methods: The ed thanolic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant (leaves and twigs) were analysed for alkanoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oil and resins. The determination of antibacterial activity was done using the agar well diffusion technique. Pure cultures of pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leutus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were used for antibacterial activity assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).   Results: The ethanolic extract of the plant had MIC values ranging from 16 mg/ml to 512.5 mg/ml. The least MIC was 16mg-ml against Salmonella typhi while Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest MIC of 512.5 mg-ml. In the aqueous extract the MIC ranged between 512.5 to >1025 mg/ml. Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were not inhibited by the water extract. Phytochemical result showed ethanol to be a better solvent for the extraction of the bioactive agents in this plant which include: glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and volatile oil.   Conclusion: In this study the gram-negative organisms had the lowest MICs and MBCs. This suggests their higher susceptibility to the extract of this plant. On the basis of the result obtained in this investigation it can be concluded that ethanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides had significant in vitro broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.   Keywords: Evolvulus alsinoides; Phytochemical screening; Antibacterial activity. DOI: JBS 2010; 18(0): 16-20

2010 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 1159-1165
Baghdad Science Journal

The antimicrobial activity of ginger extracts ( cold-water, hot-water, ethanolic and essential oil ) against some of pathogenic bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella sp , Klebsiella sp , Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus sp) was investigated using Disc diffusion method , and the results were compared with the antimicrobial activity of 12 antibiotics on the same bacteria . The results showed that the ginger extracts were more effective on gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative . V. cholerae and S. marcescens,were the most resistant bacteria to the extracts used , while highest inhibition was noticed against Streptococcus sp (28 mm) . The ethanolic extract showed the broadest antibacterial activity ( 11 to 28 mm ) , in comparison with moderate activity of essential oil , it was observed that the cold-water extract was more effective on the bacteria than hot-water extract . Ginger ethanolic extract presented higher diameter of inhibition zone for Streptococcus sp than in Ciprofloxacin , Cefotaxime , Cefalotin , Cephalexin and Cephaloridine , also it was found a similarity between the higher inhibition zones of ethanolic extract of ginger and some antibiotics for S. aureus , E. coli , Salmonella sp and Klebsiella sp . V. cholerae and S. marcescens,also highly resistant to antibiotics . Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of ginger revealed the present of glycosides, terpenoids, flavonids and phenolic compounds

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (5) ◽  
pp. 697 ◽  
Jieling Li ◽  
Ming Hu ◽  
Yang Xue ◽  
Xia Chen ◽  
Guangtao Lu ◽  

Dickeya zeae is the causal agent of bacterial soft rot disease, with a wide range of hosts all over the world. At present, chemical agents, especially agricultural antibiotics, are commonly used in the prevention and control of bacterial soft rot, causing the emergence of resistant pathogens and therefore increasing the difficulty of disease prevention and control. This study aims to provide a safer and more effective biocontrol method for soft rot disease caused by D. zeae. The spot-on-lawn assay was used to screen antagonistic bacteria, and three strains including SC3, SC11 and 3-10 revealed strong antagonistic effects and were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. parafulva and Bacillus velezensis, respectively, using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the sequences of 16S rRNA and other housekeeping genes. In vitro antimicrobial activity showed that two Pseudomonas strains SC3 and SC11 were only antagonistic to some pathogenic bacteria, while strain 3-10 had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity on both pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Evaluation of control efficacy in greenhouse trials showed that they all restrained the occurrence and development of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae MS2 or EC1. Among them, strain SC3 had the most impressive biocontrol efficacy on alleviating the soft rot symptoms on both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous hosts, and strain 3-10 additionally reduced the occurrence of banana wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubensis. This is the first report of P. fluorescens, P. parafulva and B. velezensis as potential bio-reagents on controlling soft rot disease caused by D. zeae.

2019 ◽  
Vol 50 (2) ◽  
pp. 280-287 ◽  
Farzane Jahantigh

Purpose The inclusion of natural antioxidants and nanoparticles into edible coatings can improve their structure, functionality and applicability in foods. This study aims to determine the antibacterial effect of new nano-composite based on bean pod shell gum (BPSG), silver nanoparticle (SNP) and herbal essential oil (EO). Design/methodology/approach For this purpose, BPSG (4 per cent w/v), SNP (0.5-1 per cent w/v) and Helichrysum arenarium EO (1-2 per cent v/v) were mixed. After preparation the edible film, the antibacterial activity was tested on five food-borne pathogenic bacteria in two categories including two-gram positives and three-gram negatives bacteria. The EO composition was determined by GC–mass spectrometry and the antibacterial activity was tested using disk diffusion test. Findings Results showed that gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than gram-negative bacteria. Increasing Helichrysum arenarium EO and SNP content increased antimicrobial activity of the edible film based on BPSG, so that the treatment containing 2 per cent v/v Helichrysum arenarium EO and 1 per cent w/v SNP led to the highest inhibition zone (8.1-13.1 mm) compared to treatment containing 1 per cent v/v Helichrysum arenarium EO and 0.5 per cent w/v SNP with inhibition zone range of 5.4-9.9 mm and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.41). Also, the chemical composition analysis of the EO identified a total of 38 compounds in which a-pinene (32 per cent), 1,8-cineole (16 per cent), α-humulene (15 per cent) and ß-caryophyllene (8 per cent) were the main fractions. Other separated components accounted less than 29 per cent of the oil. Originality/value In general, SNP and Helichrysum arenarium EO improved the functional properties including the antimicrobial activity of the edible film based on BPSG, which increases the potential to be used as active packaging for fresh products.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-7 ◽  
Octavio Silva-García ◽  
Juan J. Valdez-Alarcón ◽  
Víctor M. Baizabal-Aguirre

Innate immunity against pathogenic bacteria is critical to protect host cells from invasion and infection as well as to develop an appropriate adaptive immune response. During bacterial infection, different signaling transduction pathways control the expression of a wide range of genes that orchestrate a number of molecular and cellular events to eliminate the invading microorganisms and regulate inflammation. The inflammatory response must be tightly regulated because uncontrolled inflammation may lead to tissue injury. Among the many signaling pathways activated, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin has been recently shown to play an important role in the expression of several inflammatory molecules during bacterial infections. Our main goal in this review is to discuss the mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria to modulate the inflammatory response through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We think that a deep insight into the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the inflammation may open new venues for biotechnological approaches designed to control bacterial infectious diseases.

2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-38
A. I Isah ◽  
A.I. Aminu

The study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial activity both individually and in combination of two Nigerian plants (Azadirachta indica and Dodonea viscosa) against a variety of pathogenic bacteria. Five bacterial species namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected for the assays. The powdered plant materials of the two plants were extracted using sohxlet extraction technique with methanol water and petroleum ether as solvents. The crude extracts of the two plants were subjected to phytochemical screening for qualitative detection of plant secondary metabolites. The extracts were further tested for antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens singly and then combined using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of the two plants singly indicates that the methanolic extract possess the highest antibacterial activity at a concentration of 50mg/ml with an inhibition zone of 23.3±0.5mm compared to aqueous extract with 21.7±0.5mm inhibition zone at a concentration of 50mg/ml. The least activity was observed with the petroleum ether extract with an inhibition zone of 7.3±0.5mm at a concentration of 12.5mg/ml. Combination of the plants extracts exhibited lower antibacterial activity on the test isolates compared to single plants as evidenced by the production of lower inhibition zones. Key words: Azadirachta indica, Dodonea viscosa, pathogens, antimicrobial activity, synergistic effect

2015 ◽  
Vol 34 ◽  
pp. 15-20 ◽  
S. Mahendran ◽  
D. Kumarasamy

The aim of the present research work to investigate antimicrobial activity of some honey samples six winter honeys six summer honeys collected from different regions of Western Ghats. The microbes used in this study are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity of the honeys was assayed using the Disc diffusion method. Noticeable variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Among the microbes Staphylococcus aureus is the most sensitive against all honey samples shows the maximum inhibitor zone compare to summer honeys.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Iffat Naz

The present study is focused on the assessment of the antimicrobial activity of cerumen and antibiotics against bacteria isolated from ear pus samples. Thus, a total of 50 ear pus samples were collected from infected patients using sterile swabs and were screened using pure culture techniques. Total of 04 different bacterial isolates were identified while, the prevalence data revealed that Pseudomonas spp., were dominant (58%, n = 29) among isolated bacteria followed by Staphylococcus spp., (22%, n = 11), Escherichia coli (14%, n = 7) and Proteus spp., (6%, n = 3). Further, bioassay revealed that Pseudomonas spp., and Staphylococcus spp., were most sensitive to Clindamycin (94.73%) while displayed resistant to Ciprofloxacin and Ampicillin. Similarly, E. coli and Proteus spp., were most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (92.8-95.21%) as compared to the other antibiotics. Moreover, antibacterial activity of cerumen was also assessed against test organisms and its maximum activity was observed against Pseudomonas spp., (90% equivalent to Clindamycin potency) and Staphylococcus spp., (60% equivalent to Amoxicillin potency) while least effective against E. coli (36%) and Proteus spp., (22%). Thus, it was concluded that the antibacterial activity of cerumen might be due to the presence of potential chemicals i.e. flavonoids and terpenoids.

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