The Role of Grass MUTE Orthologs in GMC Progression and GC Morphogenesis

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura Serna

Stomata arose about 400 million years ago when plants left their aquatic environment. The last step of stomatal development is shared by all plant groups, and it implies a symmetrical cell division from the guard mother cell (GMC) to produce two guard cells (GCs) flanking a pore. In Arabidopsis, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MUTE controls this step, upregulating cell-cycle regulators of the GMC division, and immediately afterward, repressors of theses regulators like FAMA and FOUR LIPS. Recently, three grass MUTE orthologs (BdMUTE from Brachypodium distachyon, OsMUTE from rice, and ZmMUTE from maize) have been identified and characterized. Mutations in these genes disrupt GMC fate, with bdmute also blocking GC morphogenesis. However, because these genes also regulate subsidiary cell recruitment, which takes place before GMC division, their functions regulating GMC division and GC morphogenesis could be an indirect consequence of that inducing the recruitment of subsidiary cells. Comprehensive data evaluation indicates that BdMUTE, and probably grass MUTE orthologs, directly controls GMC fate. Although grass MUTE proteins, whose genes are expressed in the GMC, move between cells, they regulate GMC fate from the cells where they are transcribed. Grass MUTE genes also regulate GC morphogenesis. Specifically, OsMUTE controls GC shape by inducing OsFAMA expression. In addition, while SCs are not required for GMC fate progression, they are for GC maturation.

1991 ◽  
Vol 39 (1) ◽  
pp. 43 ◽  
DJ Carr ◽  
SGM Carr

The mode of stomatal development is studied in cotyledons, seedling and adult leaves of species of eucalypts and three species of Angophora. In the cotyledons of all species examined the early stomatal initials are unilabrate or dolabrate. The stomatal initials in seedling leaves of species of the Corymbosae and Clavigerae are anisocytic. In the 4th seedling leaf in species of a group we have previously called Monocalyptus the stomatal initials are also anisocytic. All other eucalypts retain the early cotyledonary mode of origin of stomata throughout life. These two modes of origin, whether anisocytic or by unilabrate and dolabrate initials, are set in all eucalypts from the 4th seedling leaf onward. Secondary characteristics of the adult stomata, e.g. number of subsidiary cells, are more complex than those of the seedling leaves; rarely, the relatively simple pattern of the seedling leaves may persist in the adult leaves of a given species. In species in which the initials in adult leaves are unilabrate or dolabrate, groups of stomata may share one or more subsidiary cells or be juxtaposed without an intervening subsidiary cell. The sister cell(s) of the guard mother cell may precociously develop a thicker cuticle than ordinary epidermal cells, and this may be apparent at maturity. The abaxial stomata of the cotyledons (but not of seedling or adult leaves) are regularly aligned parallel to the main venation. The existence of three main types of origin of stomata characteristic of three large non-interbreeding groups of eucalypts is of interest in the taxonomy of the genus.

2017 ◽  
Farah Patell ◽  
David Newman ◽  
Eunkyoung Lee ◽  
Zidian Xie ◽  
Carl Collins ◽  

Abstract (180 words)Stomatal guard cells are formed through a sequence of asymmetric and symmetric divisions in the epidermis of the sporophyte of most land plants. We show that several D-type cyclins are consecutively activated in the stomatal linage in the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas CYCD2;1 and CYCD3;2 are activated in the meristemoids early in the lineage, CYCD7;1 is activated before the final division. CYCD7;1 expression peaks in the guard mother cell, where its transcription is modulated by the FOUR-LIPS/MYB88 transcription factor. FOUR-LIPS/MYB88 interacts with the CYCD7;1 promoter and represses CYCD7;1 transcription. CYCD7;1 stimulates the final symmetric division in the stomatal lineage, since guard cell formation is delayed in the cycd7;1 mutant epidermis and guard mother cell (GMC) divisions in four-lips mutant guard mother cells are limited by loss of function of CYCD7;1. Hence, the precise activation of a specific D-type cyclin, CYCD7;1, is required for correct timing of the last symmetric division that creates the stomatal guards cells, and CYCD7;1 expression is regulated by the FLP/MYB pathway that ensures cell cycle arrest in the stomatal guard cells.Summary StatementThe formation of paired guard cells in the epidermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana shoot, requires the activity of the D-type cyclin CYCD7;1 for the normal timing of the final division.

2000 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 915-927 ◽  
Ariella Meimoun ◽  
Tsvi Holtzman ◽  
Ziva Weissman ◽  
Helen J. McBride ◽  
David J. Stillman ◽  

Gcn4, a yeast transcriptional activator that promotes the expression of amino acid and purine biosynthesis genes, is rapidly degraded in rich medium. Here we report that SCFCDC4, a recently characterized protein complex that acts in conjunction with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 to degrade cell cycle regulators, is also necessary for the degradation of the transcription factor Gcn4. Degradation of Gcn4 occurs throughout the cell cycle, whereas degradation of the known cell cycle substrates of Cdc34/SCFCDC4 is cell cycle regulated. Gcn4 ubiquitination and degradation are regulated by starvation for amino acids, whereas the degradation of the cell cycle substrates of Cdc34/SCFCDC4 is unaffected by starvation. We further show that unlike the cell cycle substrates of Cdc34/SCFCDC4, which require phosphorylation by the kinase Cdc28, Gcn4 degradation requires the kinase Pho85. We identify the critical target site of Pho85 on Gcn4; a mutation of this site stabilizes the protein. A specific Pho85-Pcl complex that is able to phosphorylate Gcn4 on that site is inactive under conditions under which Gcn4 is stable. Thus, Cdc34/SCFCDC4 activity is constitutive, and regulation of the stability of its various substrates occurs at the level of their phosphorylation.

Blood ◽  
2004 ◽  
Vol 103 (3) ◽  
pp. 828-835 ◽  
Sigal Gery ◽  
Adrian F. Gombart ◽  
Yuen K. Fung ◽  
H. Phillip Koeffler

AbstractCCAAT enhancer binding protein epsilon (C/EBPϵ) is a myeloid specific transcription factor that is essential for terminal granulocytic differentiation. Retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F1 are critical cell cycle regulators that also have been implicated in several differentiation systems. Here, we demonstrate that C/EBPϵ interacts with Rb and E2F1 during granulocytic differentiation in NB4 and U937 human myeloid cells and in 32Dcl3 murine myeloid precursor cells. The interaction between C/EBPϵ and Rb enhances C/EBPϵ-mediated transcription of myeloid specific genes both in reporter assays and endogenously. The C/EBPϵ-E2F1 interaction results in repression of E2F1-mediated transcriptional activity. Finally, overexpression of C/EBPϵ in human myeloid cells leads to down-regulation of c-Myc. We propose that the interactions between C/EBPϵ, a tissue-specific transcription factor, and the broad-spectrum proteins, Rb and E2F1, are important in C/EBPϵ-induced terminal granulocytic differentiation.

1996 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1436-1449 ◽  
K Moberg ◽  
M A Starz ◽  
J A Lees

The E2F transcription factor couples the coordinate expression of cell cycle proteins to their appropriate transition points. Its activity is controlled by the cell cycle regulators pRB, p107, and p130. These bind to E2F at defined but distinct stages of the cell cycle. Using specific antisera, we have identified the DP and E2F components of each of these species. Although present at very different levels, DP-1 and DP-2 are evenly distributed among each of these complexes. In contrast, the individual E2Fs have distinctly different binding profiles. Consistent with previous studies, E2F-1, E2F-2, and E2F-3 bind specifically to the retinoblastoma protein. In each case, their expression and DNA binding activity are restricted to post-G1/S fractions. Surprisingly, E2F-1 and E2F-3 make unequal contributions to the pRB-associated and free E2F activity, suggesting that these proteins perform different cell cycle functions. Most significantly, this study showed E2F-4 accounts for the vast majority of the endogenous E2F activity. In arrested cells, E2F-4 is sequestered by the p130 protein. However, as the cells pass the G1-to-S transition, the levels of pRB and p107 increase and E2F-4 now associates with both of these regulators. Despite this, a considerable amount of E2F-4 exists as free E2F. In G1 cells, this accounts for almost all of the free activity. Once the cells enter S phase, free E2F is composed of an equal mixture of E2F-4 and E2F-1.

eLife ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Juliana L Matos ◽  
On Sun Lau ◽  
Charles Hachez ◽  
Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez ◽  
Ben Scheres ◽  

The presumed totipotency of plant cells leads to questions about how specific stem cell lineages and terminal fates could be established. In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, a transient self-renewing phase creates precursors that differentiate into one of two epidermal cell types, guard cells or pavement cells. We found that irreversible differentiation of guard cells involves RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) recruitment to regulatory regions of master regulators of stomatal initiation, facilitated through interaction with a terminal stomatal lineage transcription factor, FAMA. Disrupting physical interactions between FAMA and RBR preferentially reveals the role of RBR in enforcing fate commitment over its role in cell-cycle control in this developmental context. Analysis of the phenotypes linked to the modulation of FAMA and RBR sheds new light on the way iterative divisions and terminal differentiation are coordinately regulated in a plant stem-cell lineage.

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