scholarly journals Impact of Sowing Time on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Biomass Accumulation and Yield

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Mark F. Richards ◽  
Lancelot Maphosa ◽  
Aaron L. Preston

Chickpea growth, development and grain yield are affected by a range of climatic and environmental factors. Experiments were conducted across four sowing dates from mid-April to the end of May, over two years at Trangie in central western New South Wales (NSW), and Leeton, Wagga Wagga and Yanco (one year) in southern NSW, to examine the influence of sowing time on biomass accumulation, grain yield and plant yield components. Climatic and experimental location data were recorded during the growing seasons. Early sowing (mid-April) resulted in taller plants, higher bottom and top pod heights, fewer pods, more unfilled pods and greater biomass accumulation, but low harvest index due to reduced grain yield compared with late sowing (end of May). Grain number was positively correlated with grain yield and was the main yield component accounting for most of the variation in yield. There was largely a positive correlation between biomass and yield, especially with delayed sowing except for Leeton experiments. This study concludes that sowing around the end of April in central western NSW and mid-May in southern NSW is conducive to higher grain yield as it minimises exposure to abiotic stresses at critical growth periods and allows efficient conversion of biomass to grain yield.

Revista CERES ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 64 (5) ◽  
pp. 532-539
Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho ◽  
Adriano Stephan Nascente ◽  
Gilvan Ferreira Barbosa ◽  
Celso Américo Pedro Mutadiua ◽  
José Eloir Denardin

ABSTRACT The demonstration of yield potential of crops depends on genetic factors, favorable conditions of envi ronment, and management. The sowing time can significantly affect the common bean grain yield. The aim of this research was to study the behavior of Brazilian cultivars and sowing times on the yield components and grain yield of common bean grown in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique. The field trial was performed for two growing seasons, using the experimental as a randomized block in factorial 5 × 3 × 2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of five common bean cultivars (BRS Pontal, BRS Agreste, Perola, and BRS Requinte, developed by Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), and a local variety, Encarnada) with three sowing dates (beginning of the rainy season, and 15 and 30 days after), during two growing seasons. The Brazilian cultivar of common beans BRS Pontal was the most productive in all sowing times, followed by BRS Agreste, which was not the most productive only in the second sowing time of 2013/2014 growing season. The cultivar Encarnada, from Mozambique, was the less productive cultivar in all sowing times and in all growing seasons. The best sowing time for common bean cultivars is in the beginning of the rainy season. The use of technologies such as use of seeds of new cultivars, proper sowing time, fertilization, and control of weeds allow significant increase of common bean grain yield in Lichinga, Mozambique.

2017 ◽  
Vol 52 (11) ◽  
pp. 997-1005 ◽  
Lucieli Santini Leolato ◽  
Luis Sangoi ◽  
Murilo Miguel Durli ◽  
Fernando Panison ◽  
Ramon Voss

Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of the growth regulator Trinexapac-ethyl on maize response to the increase in plant density at two sowing dates. A field experiment was carried out in the municipality of Lages, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons. Two sowing dates (10/15 - preferential, and 12/5 - late), four plant densities (5, 7, 9, and 11 plants m-2), with and without Trinexapac-ethyl application, were tested. The growth regulator was sprayed at a rate of 150 g a.i. ha-1, when hybrid P30F53YH was at the V5 and V10 growth stages. The spraying of Trinexapac-ethyl decreased the stem length above the ear insertion node at both growing seasons. Grain yield ranged from 11,422 to 14,805 kg ha-1, and increased in a quadratic way with the increment in plant density. The highest yields were reached when maize was sown in October. The spraying of Trinexapac-ethyl did not affect grain yield, but decreased the 1,000 kernels mass at both sowing dates. The use of Trinexapac-ethyl does not enhance grain yield of maize hybrid P30F53YH at crowded stands in response to the densification, regardless of sowing time.

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1257
Mark F. Richards ◽  
Aaron L. Preston ◽  
Tony Napier ◽  
Leigh Jenkins ◽  
Lancelot Maphosa

Chickpea is the main legume rotation crop within farming systems in northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and is grown mainly under rainfed conditions. Recent expansion of chickpea growing areas in southern and central western NSW expose them to abiotic stresses; however, knowledge about how these stresses affect overall crop development is limited. This study aimed to examine the influence of sowing time on the timing and duration of key chickpea phenological growth phases in southern and central western environments of NSW. Experiments were conducted over two years in southern NSW (Leeton, Wagga Wagga and Yanco (one year)) and central western NSW (Trangie) to identify phenology responses. Climatic, phenology and experimental site data was recorded, and the duration of growth phases and growing degree days calculated. Early sowing (mid-April) generally delayed flowering, extending the crop’s vegetative period, and the progressive delay in sowing resulted in shorter vegetative and podding growth phases. All genotypes showed photoperiod sensitivity, and the mean daily temperature at sowing influenced time to emergence and to some extent crop establishment. This study concludes that environmental factors such as temperature, moisture availability and day length are the main drivers of phenological development in chickpea.

Weed Science ◽  
2020 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Muhammad Javaid Akhter ◽  
Per Kudsk ◽  
Solvejg Kopp Mathiassen ◽  
Bo Melander

Abstract Field experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019 to evaluate the competitive effects of rattail fescue [Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.] in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and to assess whether delayed crop sowing and increased crop density influence the emergence, competitiveness, and fecundity of V. myuros. Cumulative emergence showed the potential of V. myuros to emerge rapidly and under a wide range of climatic conditions with no effect of crop density and variable effects of sowing time between the two experiments. Grain yield and yield components were negatively affected by increasing V. myuros density. The relationship between grain yield and V. myuros density was not influenced by sowing time or by crop density, but crop–weed competition was strongly influenced by growing conditions. Due to very different weather conditions, grain yield reductions were lower in the growing season of 2017 to 2018 than in 2018 to 2019, with maximum grain yield losses of 22% and 50% in the two growing seasons, respectively. The yield components, number of crop ears per square meter, and 1,000-kernel weight were affected almost equally, reflecting that V. myuros’s competition with winter wheat occurred both early and late in the growing season. Seed production of V. myuros was suppressed by delaying sowing and increasing crop density. The impacts of delayed sowing and increasing crop density on seed production of V. myuros highlight the potential of these cultural weed control tactics in the long-term management programs of this species.

2017 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 155-160
MAR Sharif ◽  
MZ Haque ◽  
MHK Howlader ◽  
MJ Hossain

The experiment was conducted at the field laboratory of the Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh during the period from November, 2011 to March 2012 under the tidal Floodplain region to find out optimum sowing time for the selected three cultivars (BARI Sharisha-15, BINA Sharisha-5 and BARI Sharisha-9). There were four sowing dates viz. 30 November, 15 December, 30 December and 15 January. Significant variations due to different sowing dates were observed in plant height, total dry matter, leaf area index, number of siliqua plant-1, seeds silique-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and HI. Results showed that the highest grain yield (1.73 t ha-1) was obtained from the first sowing (30 November) with BINA Sharisha-5 and it was significantly different from the yields of all other combination.J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 14(2): 155-160, December 2016

2017 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 77-85
Md Sohel Mahmud ◽  
Md Jafar Ullah ◽  
Md Abdullahil Baque ◽  
Lutfun Naher ◽  
Sayed Mohammad Mohsin

The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irrigations and sowing dates on growth and yield performance of wheat in the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of November 18, 2012 to March 30, 2013. The experiment was comprised of two factors, viz. factor A: two irrigations namely irrigation (I) and no irrigation i.e. control (I0), and factor B: three sowing dates such as S1: 1st sowing on 18 November, S2: 2nd sowing on 03 December and S3: 3rd sowing on 18 December. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation was assigned in the main plot, while sowing time was in the sub-plots. Data on grain yield and different yield contributing characters were taken after harvest. Results indicated that the highest grain yield was obtained with I (2.915 t ha-1) and S1 (2.983 t ha-1). The interaction of irrigation (I) and sowing on 18 November (S1) showed the maximum yield (3.387t ha-1), spike length (17.08 cm), 1000 grain weight (43.4 g), spikelets spike-1 (20.03) and grain spike-1 (65.58) of wheat.The Agriculturists 2016; 14(2) 77-85

2016 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 409 ◽  
R. D. Brill ◽  
M. L. Jenkins ◽  
M. J. Gardner ◽  
J. M. Lilley ◽  
B. A. Orchard

April sowing of canola is considered optimal for grain yield in many regions of Australia; however, there is often insufficient rainfall in April to sow seed into moisture at the ideal depth of 15–30 mm. We report a series of experiments that investigated the seed characteristics (cultivar type and seed size) that would facilitate successful canola emergence from relatively deep sowing (>30 mm). Ten canola cultivar by sowing depth experiments, each with three hybrid and three open-pollinated cultivars, found hybrid cultivars were able to maintain higher emergence rates and grain yield compared with open-pollinated cultivars from deep sowing. Further investigations in the glasshouse showed that the emergence advantage of the hybrid cultivars was largely due to their inherently large seed size, as increased seed size also improved emergence of open-pollinated canola. Early biomass accumulation also improved with larger seeds. In a field experiment, larger seed size of both hybrid and open-pollinated canola increased early biomass accumulation and final grain yield. Simulation modelling in New South Wales demonstrated the importance of timely sowing of canola, as delayed sowing caused a larger reduction in grain yield than reduced plant population. Although ‘moisture-seeking’ (placing seed into moist soil below a layer of dry soil) reduced the emergence rate of canola, the reduction could be offset by planting large seed (>2 mm diameter). This practice of ‘moisture-seeking’ large-seeded canola should be considered as a strategy to improve the timeliness of establishment and subsequent grain yield of canola when rainfall for crop establishment is marginal yet there is moisture available deeper in the seedbed.

2018 ◽  
Vol 64 (No. 7) ◽  
pp. 310-316 ◽  
Mirosavljevic Milan ◽  
Momcolovic Vojislava ◽  
Maksimovic Ivana ◽  
Putnik-Delic Marina ◽  
Pržulj Novo ◽  

The aim of this study was to improve understanding of (1) the effect of genotypic and environmental factors on pre-anthesis development and leaf appearance traits of barley and wheat; (2) the relationship of these factors with grain yield, and (3) the differences between these two crops across different environments/sowing dates. Therefore, trials with six two-row winter barley and six winter wheat cultivars were carried out in two successive growing seasons on four sowing dates. Our study showed that the observed traits varied between species, cultivars and sowing dates. In both growing seasons, biomass at anthesis and grain yield declined almost linearly by delaying the sowing date. There was no clear advantage in grain yield of wheat over barley under conditions of later sowing dates. Generally, barley produced more leaf and had shorter phyllochron than wheat. Both wheat and barley showed a similar relationship between grain yield and different pre-anthesis traits.

2017 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-124
SK Mondal ◽  
MM Rahman

The experiment was conducted to find out the morpho-physiological variability in response to different sowing dates in four lines of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) in in the Field Laboratory of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. The study was carried out with four lines of maize and two sowing dates, 15 November (T1) and 15 December, ((T2). Sowing date differed significantly in plant height, length of leaf blade, length of leaf sheath, leaf breadth, cob length, cob diameter, length of tassel, days to 50% tasselling, days to 50 % silking, days to maturity, number of cobs per plant, cob weight, number of grain per cob. 1000-seed weight, percent underdeveloped cob, total dry matter and grain yield, but did not differ in number of leaves and protein percent. The lines differed significantly among themselves in those characters except number of leaves per plant, length of leaf sheath, cob length, cob diameter, days to 50% tasselling, number of cobs per plants and number of grain per cob. The line Across 8666 (V2) and (V3) gave the highest grain yield 4.57 and 4.55 and the lowest from (V4) lines 4.41 tons per hectare. The 15 November sowing time (T1) gave the highest grain yield 4.86 tons per hectare. In case of interaction, the earlier planting time (T1) showed better performance with all lines. On the other hand, the highest yield was found from combination of line V2 and V3 with earlier planting time (T1).J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 10(1): 117-124 2017

1982 ◽  
Vol 22 (115) ◽  
pp. 76 ◽  
KA Boundy ◽  
TG Reeves ◽  
HD Brooke

The effect of serial planting on dry matter production, leaf area, grain yield and yield components cf Lupinus angustifoiius (cvv. Uniwhite, Uniharvest and Unicrop) and L. albus (cv. Ultra) was investigated in field plots at Rutherglen in 1973 and 1974. Delayed planting reduced dry matter production of all cultivars, and leaf area for Ultra. Differences in dry matter partitioning were observed between the late flowering Uniharvest, and the early flowering Unicrop and Ultra. In Uniharvest, delayed plantings resulted in a greater proportion of total dry matter being produced during the flowering phase, whereas the reverse was true for Unicrop and Ultra. The later flowering cultivars showed marked grain yield and yield component reduction with later sowing. Yields were reduced by 160.6 kg/ha and 222.5 kg/ha for each week's delay in sowing Uniharvest and Uniwhite, respectively. This effect was offset in the early flowering cultivars by greater development of lateral branches. In addition, when Unicrop and Ultra were planted in April, pod and flower abortion on the main stem resulted from low temperatures at flowering time. Optimum sowing time was early April for Uniwhite and Uniharvest, and early May for Unicrop and Ultra. Excellent vegetative growth under ideal moisture conditions highlighted the poor harvest indices of lupins and the scope for genetic improvement in the genus.

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