scholarly journals Early Effects of Fertilizer and Herbicide Reduction on Root-Associated Biota in Oil Palm Plantations

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Aisjah R. Ryadin ◽  
Dennis Janz ◽  
Dominik Schneider ◽  
Aiyen Tjoa ◽  
Bambang Irawan ◽  

To secure high yield, tropical oil palm plantations are fertilized, and understory vegetation is controlled by chemical clearing with herbicides. These treatments cause a drastic turnover of soil microbes and cause loss of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we tested if reduced fertilization and weeding instead of conventional treatments restored beneficial ecological groups associated with roots. We conducted our study one year after the start of the reduced management in large-scale oil palm plantations. We hypothesized that reduced fertilizer application and weeding result in shifts of the root-associated species composition because changes in the management regimes affect belowground biomass and nutrients in soil and roots. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the legacy of massive soil fertilization and herbicide application preclude compositional shifts of root-associated biota within short time periods. We did not find any significant treatment effects on root nutrient contents, root biomass, and nutrients in soil. At the level of species (based on operational taxonomic units obtained by Illumina sequencing) or phyla, no significant effects of reduced management were observed. However, distinct functional groups showed early responses to the treatments: nematodes decreased in response to weeding; yeasts and ectomycorrhizal-multitrophic fungi increased under fertilizer treatments; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased under fertilizer reduction. Since the responsive ecological groups were represented by low sequence abundances, their responses were masked by very high sequence abundances of saprotrophic and pathotrophic fungi. Thus, the composition of the whole root-associated community was unaffected by reduced management. In conclusion, our results show that changes in management regimes start to re-wire critical constituents of soil–plant food webs.

2019 ◽  
Vol 13 ((03) 2019) ◽  
pp. 380-385 ◽  
Soraya Marx Bamberg ◽  
Silvio Junio Ramos ◽  
Marco Aurelio Carbone Carneiro ◽  
José Oswaldo Siqueira

Fertilizer application can enhance the nutritional value of plants, such effects being influenced by the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Nutrients × AMF interactions are well-known for variety of elements but very little has been addressed on biofortification of selenium (Se) in plants grown in tropical soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Se application and AMF inoculation on growth and micronutrient contents on soybean plants as forage grass. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized factorial design with five Se doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg kg-1 for soybean plants, and 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 mg kg-1 for forage plants), with and without AMF inoculation in three replicates. The results showed that soil Se had only slight effect on soybean growth but it caused a two-fold increase on grain yield. However, the growth of forage grass was enhanced by Se application when AMF was present. The AMF inoculation reduced benefit for soybean growth and yield but marked positive effect on forage grass at high doses of Se. Selenium contents in both plants were increased by its application in soil, being such effect proportional to soil applied doses. Selenium application and AMF inoculation had marked effects on micronutrients contents in both soybean plants and forage grass and they may contribute to Se and micronutrient biofortification.

2012 ◽  
Vol 2012 ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Simon Gmünder ◽  
Reena Singh ◽  
Stephan Pfister ◽  
Alok Adheloya ◽  
Rainer Zah

In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation ofJatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of differentJatropha curcascultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the wholeJatropha curcasbiodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use ofJatropha curcasbiodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact ofJatropha curcasbiodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of theJatropha curcasplantations.

2018 ◽  
Ivan D. Mateus ◽  
Frédéric G. Masclaux ◽  
Consolée Aletti ◽  
Edward C. Rojas ◽  
Romain Savary ◽  

AbstractArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) impact plant growth and are a major driver of plant diversity and productivity. We quantified the contribution of intra-specific genetic variability in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Rhizophagus irregularis to gene reprogramming in symbioses using dual RNA-sequencing. A large number of cassava genes exhibited altered transcriptional responses to the fungus but transcription of most of these plant genes (72%) responded in a different direction or magnitude depending on the plant genotype. Two AMF isolates displayed large differences in their transcription, but the direction and magnitude of the transcriptional responses for a large number of these genes was also strongly influenced by the genotype of the plant host. This indicates that unlike the highly conserved plant genes necessary for the symbiosis establishment, plant and fungal gene transcriptional responses are not conserved and are greatly influenced by plant and fungal genetic differences, even at the within-species level. The transcriptional variability detected allowed us to identify an extensive gene network showing the interplay in plant-fungal reprogramming in the symbiosis. Key genes illustrated that the two organisms jointly program their cytoskeleton organisation during growth of the fungus inside roots. Our study reveals that plant and fungal genetic variation plays a strong role in shaping the genetic reprograming in response to symbiosis, indicating considerable genotype x genotype interactions in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Such variation needs to be considered in order to understand the molecular mechanisms between AMF and their plant hosts in natural communities.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Ziheng Song ◽  
Yinli Bi ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Yunli Gong ◽  
Huihui Yang

Abstract It is urgent to restore the ecological function in open-pit mining areas on grassland in Eastern China. The open-pit mines have abundant of mining associated clay, which is desirable for using as a soil source for ecological restoration. The mining associated clay in Hulunbuir district, Inner Mongolia was selected and mixed with a sandy soil at a ratio of 1:1 (S_C soil). Also, effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on soil functions were studied. The aboveground and underground biomass of maize in S_C soil was 1.49 and 2.41 times higher than that of clay soil, respectively. In the topsoil and S_C soil, the growth hormone (IAA) and cytokinin (CTK) levels of maize were higher than that of clay, while abscission acid (ABA) levels were lower. The inoculation with AMF could significantly improve the biomass of maize and enhance the stress resistance of plants. Through structural equation model (SEM) analyses, it was found that the soil type and AMF inoculation had the most direct impact on maize growth and biomass content. These finds extend our knowledge regarding a low-cost method for physical and biological improvement of mining associated clay, and to provide theoretical support for large-scale application in the future.

2021 ◽  
Ke Chen ◽  
David Kleijn ◽  
Jeroen Scheper ◽  
Thijs P.M. Fijen

AbstractManaging ecosystem services may reduce the dependence of modern agriculture on external inputs and increase the sustainability of agricultural production. Insect pollinators and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide vital ecosystem services for crop production, but it has not been tested whether their effects on crop yield interact and how their effects are influenced by nutrient availability. Here we use potted raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants in a full-factorial randomized block design to assess the interacting effects of insect pollination, AMF inoculation and four levels of fertilizer application. AMF inoculation increased the per-plant flower number by 33% and fruit number by 35%, independently from insect pollination and fertilizer application. Single berry weight furthermore increased more strongly with fertilizer application rates in AMF inoculated plants than in non-inoculated plants. As a consequence, AMF inoculation boosted raspberry yield by 43% compared to non-inoculated plants. AMF inoculation increased pollinator visitation rate under intermediate fertilizer levels, suggesting additional indirect effects of AMF on yield. Fruit yield of pollinated plants increased more strongly with fertilizer application rate than the yield of plants from which pollinators had been excluded. At maximum nutrient availability, the combined benefits of both ecosystem services resulted in a 135% higher yield than that of fertilizer-only treatments. Our results suggest that benefits of ecosystem services on yield can be additive or synergistic to the effects of conventional management practices. Intensive, high-input farming systems that do not consider the potential adverse effects of management on ecosystem service providing species may risk becoming limited by delivery of ecosystem services. Pro-actively managing ecosystem services, on the other hand, has the potential to increase crop yield at the same level of external inputs.

2018 ◽  
Vol 86 (2) ◽  
Esty Puri UTAMI ◽  
Endah Retno PALUPI ◽  

Oil palm is a leading commodity of the plantation sector in Indonesia. Improving the quality of oil palm still be carried out to increase production. Seed technology can be used as an effort to improve the quality of oil palm seeds. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of seed enrichment with consortium of three microbes to increase vigor of oil palm seedling in pre nursery stage. The experiment design of this reseach was using completely randomize block design consisted of two factors. The first was seed coating consist of two factors, ie: coated seed and uncoated seed. Second was seed enrichment consist of eight factors, ie: control, enrichment with E. sacchari, abruscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), T. asperellum, E. sacchari+ AMF, E. sacchari+ T. asperellum, AMF + T. asperellum, E. sacchari+ AMF + T. asperellum. The result showed that enrichment with consortium of three microbes could increase vigor of oil palm seedling based on seedling germination, rate of germination, palm height, and numbers of survival seedling.[Keywords:biological agent, compatibility, diazotroph] Abstrak *) Penulis korespondensi: [email protected] Kelapa sawit adalah komoditas unggulan sektor perkebunan di Indonesia. Peningkatan mutu kelapa sawit terus dilakukan agar mening-katkan produksinya. Teknologi benih dapat digu-nakan sebagai salah satu upaya peningkatan mutu benih kelapa sawit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menetapkan pengaruh pengayaan konsorsium tiga mikroba, E. sacchari,T. asperellumdan cendawan mikoriza arbuskular (CMA) dan pelapisan kecambah terhadap peningkatan vigor bibit kelapa sawit di pre nursery. Percobaan dirancang dengan rancangan acak kelompok dengan dua faktor, yaitu pelapisan dan pengayaan. Pelapisan terdiri dari dua taraf, yaitu dengan pelapisan dan tanpa pelapisan. Pengayaan terdiri dari 8 taraf, yaitu kontrol, pengayaan dengan E. sacchari, CMA, T. asperellum, E. sacchari+ CMA, E. sacchari + T. asperellum,CMA + T.asperellum,E. sacchari+ CMA + T. asperellum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengayaan dengan konsor-sium tiga mikroba dapat meningkatkan vigor bibit kelapa sawit berdasarkan parameter daya tumbuh, kecepatan tumbuh, tinggi bibit, dan jumlah bibit yang hidup.  [Kata kunci:    agen hayati,    diazotrop, kompa-tibilitas]

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 990
Anderson Martins de Souza Braz ◽  
Marcondes Lima da Costa ◽  
Sílvio Junio Ramos ◽  
Roberto Dall’Agnol ◽  
Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

The Amazon soils demand high rates of fertilizer application to express high agricultural potential, making it necessary to carry out frequent monitoring of ecological functions and biogeochemical processes in this important biome. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn and contamination indexes were studied in Oxisol and Ultisols cultivated with citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), at 26, 10 and 5 years of implantation, respectively. The potential risk of contamination was estimated by the enrichment (EF) and bioaccumulation (BAF) factors. Moderate enrichment of Ba, Pb and Zn (2 < EF < 5) and significant enrichment of As and Cu (5 < EF < 20) were observed. In addition, the following orders of bioaccumulation were found: oil palm—Cu > Zn > Hg > Ni > Ba > Co > As > Cr > Cd ≈ Pb; black pepper—Zn > Hg > Cu > Ba > Ni > Co > Pb >> As > Cr > Cd; and citrus—Hg > Ni > Ba > Zn > Co > Cu > As > Pb >> Cr > Cd. However, all elements are in concentrations below the prevention and investigation values established by Brazilian legislation, that is, the management practices in the crops studied are not contributing with damage to soil and human health risks.

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