scholarly journals The Role of Ultrasound as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool in Experimental Animal Models of Stroke: A Review

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1609
Mari Carmen Gómez-de Frutos ◽  
Fernando Laso-García ◽  
Iván García-Suárez ◽  
Luke Diekhorst ◽  
Laura Otero-Ortega ◽  

Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique that provides real-time imaging with excellent resolution, and several studies demonstrated the potential of ultrasound in acute ischemic stroke monitoring. However, only a few studies were performed using animal models, of which many showed ultrasound to be a safe and effective tool also in therapeutic applications. The full potential of ultrasound application in experimental stroke is yet to be explored to further determine the limitations of this technique and to ensure the accuracy of translational research. This review covers the current status of ultrasound applied to monitoring and treatment in experimental animal models of stroke and examines the safety, limitations, and future perspectives.

2010 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 8 ◽  
Ilpo Huhtaniemi ◽  
Maria Alevizaki ◽  

The concept of the direct involvement of gonadotrophins in tumorigenesis has been around for a long time. First, because the gonads are direct targets of gonadotrophin action, their tumours have been proposed to be gonadotrophin-dependent. Second, the recent findings of gonadotrophin receptors in extragonadal tissues has prompted the hypothesis that some extragonadal tumours (e.g. breast, uterus, prostate, pituitary and adrenal) could also be under the direct regulatory action of gonadotrophins. However, although supported by numerousin vitroexperiments and experimental animal models, the clinical evidence for a direct tumorigenic role of gonadotrophins remains weak. The purpose of this brief review is to present a critical evaluation of current information, both clinical and experimental, about the involvement of gonadotrophins in the induction and growth of gonadal and extragonadal tumours.

2016 ◽  
Vol 311 (2) ◽  
pp. E405-E422 ◽  
Sooyeon Lee ◽  
Shannon L. Kelleher

Lactation is a dynamic process that has evolved to produce a complex biological fluid that provides nutritive and nonnutritive factors to the nursing offspring. It has long been assumed that once lactation is successfully initiated, the primary factor regulating milk production is infant demand. Thus, most interventions have focused on improving breastfeeding education and early lactation support. However, in addition to infant demand, increasing evidence from studies conducted in experimental animal models, production animals, and breastfeeding women suggests that a diverse array of maternal factors may also affect milk production and composition. In this review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of maternal genetics and modifiable factors, such as diet and environmental exposures, on reproductive endocrinology, lactation physiology, and the ability to successfully produce milk. To identify factors that may affect lactation in women, we highlight some information gleaned from studies in experimental animal models and production animals. Finally, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and provide commentary on future research opportunities aimed at improving lactation outcomes in breastfeeding women to improve the health of mothers and their infants.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 44-58 ◽  
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha ◽  
G.P. Sowmya ◽  
Hanumanthappa Shylaja ◽  
Yogananda Moolemath

2015 ◽  
Vol 2015 ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Salvador Mérida ◽  
Elena Palacios ◽  
Amparo Navea ◽  
Francisco Bosch-Morell

Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution.

2016 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 101 ◽  
Pericles Foroglou ◽  
Vasileios Karathanasis ◽  
Efterpi Demiri ◽  
George Koliakos ◽  
Marios Papadakis

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