scholarly journals Investigation of Accelerated Degradation Methods to Cause Blisters for Non-Defective Vinyl Ester Resin Glass Flake Organic Coatings

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Koya Tokutake ◽  
Shinji Okazaki ◽  
Shintaro Kodama

Organic coatings are applied as a corrosion prevention measure, but their effectiveness may degrade over time. In this study, the acceleration effects of typical degradation methods in non-defective vinyl ester resin organic coatings containing glass flakes such as high-temperature immersion and immersion in chemical accelerators are clarified using physiochemical techniques. Immersion in an acetic acid (AcOH) aqueous solution causes resin swelling, and the behaviors are quantitatively evaluated through gravimetric, thickness, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, a combined process of immersion in hydrofluoric acid and an AcOH aqueous solution reduces the electrical properties and eventually blisters the thick coating surface. This result suggests that an appropriate combination of the resin swelling and the glass degradation (glass dissolution and/or formation of the gap between glass and resin) decrease mechanical properties of the glass flake coating and causes blisters. In order to help the health diagnosis of the visually non-defective aged glass flake coating, the relationship between the electrical characteristic values and the invisible degradation by accelerated tests is finally indicated.

Batteries ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 58 ◽  
Daniel Manschke ◽  
Thorsten Seipp ◽  
Sascha Berthold ◽  
K. Friedrich

The state-of-the-art functionality test of classic redox-flow-stacks measures the current–voltage characteristic with the technical electrolyte. This research paper aims to simplify the validation of redox flow batteries’ functionality by conducting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on redox flow stacks. Since the electrolyte used in the batteries is usually toxic and aggressive, it would be a significant simplification to verify the functionality with an alternative, non-toxic fluid. EIS measurements on batteries with larger sized electrodes, multiple cells, and different fluids were performed. It was demonstrated that all impedances are repeatable, thereby validating this procedure as a qualification method for full-size and complex batteries with an alternative fluid. EIS measurements were able to detect deliberately manipulated cells. This research uses three different analysis methods for the acquired data to identify errors. The respective approaches are, firstly, (1) a comparison of the Nyquist plots; secondly, (2) a comparison of the Bode plots; and thirdly, (3) a comparison of the calculated characteristic values of the equivalent circuits. The analysis found that all methods are suitable to detect errors in the batteries. Nevertheless, the bode-plot comparison method proves to be especially advantageous, because it enables a quantitative statement.

Pablo C. Serrano ◽  
Gisele E. Nunes ◽  
Lindiomar B. Avila ◽  
Carleane P.S. Reis ◽  
Aldo M.C. Gomes ◽  

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 571
Aurelia Elena Tudose ◽  
Ioana Demetrescu ◽  
Florentina Golgovici ◽  
Manuela Fulger

The aim of this work was to study the corrosion behavior of a Fe-Cr-Ni alloy (310 H stainless steel) in water at a supercritical temperature of 550 °C and a pressure of 250 atm for up to 2160 h. At supercritical temperature, water is a highly aggressive environment, and the corrosion of structural materials used in a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR) is a critical problem. Selecting proper candidate materials is one key issue for the development of SCWRs. After exposure to deaerated supercritical water, the oxides formed on the 310 H SS surface were characterized using a gravimetric analysis, a metallographic analysis, and electrochemical methods. Gravimetric analysis showed that, due to oxidation, all the tested samples gained weight, and oxidation of 310H stainless steel at 550 °C follows parabolic rate, indicating that it is driven by a diffusion process. The data obtained by microscopic metallography concord with those obtained by gravimetric analysis and show that the oxides layer has a growing tendency in time. At the same time, the results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicate the best corrosion resistance of Cr, and (Fe, Mn) Cr2O4 oxides developed on the samples surface after 2160 h of oxidation. Based on the results obtained, a strong correlation between gravimetric analysis, metallographic analysis, and electrochemical methods was found.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (12) ◽  
pp. 3679
Ismat H. Ali

This study aimed to examine the extract of barks of Tamarix aphylla as a corrosion inhibitor. The methodology briefly includes plant sample collection, extraction of the corrosion inhibitor, gravimetric analysis, plotting potentiodynamic polarization plots, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, optimization of conditions, and preparation of the inhibitor products. The results show that the values of inhibition efficiency (IE%) increased as the concentrations of the inhibitor increased, with a maximum achievable inhibition efficiency of 85.0%. Potentiodynamic polarization (PP) tests revealed that the extract acts as a dual-type inhibitor. The results obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicate an increase in polarisation resistance, confirming the inhibitive capacity of the tested inhibitor. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and involves competitive physio-sorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The EIS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of temperature on corrosion inhibition within the 298–328 K temperature range. Results confirm that the inhibition efficiency (IE%) of the inhibitor decreased slightly as the temperature increased. Lastly, the thermodynamic parameters for the inhibitor were calculated.

2013 ◽  
Vol 25 (14) ◽  
pp. 7955-7958 ◽  
Wanwan Ding ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Jianye Liu ◽  
Zengkai Pang ◽  
Ruifang Guan

2010 ◽  
Vol 150-151 ◽  
pp. 1413-1416 ◽  
Hong Yan Chen ◽  
Zhen Xing Kong ◽  
Ji Hui Wang

The cure kinetics of Derakane 411-350, a kind of vinyl ester resin, and its suspensions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes( MWCNTs) were investigated via non-isothermal dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The results showed that incorporation of MWCNTs into vinyl ester resin excessively reduces polymerization degree and crosslinking density of vinyl ester resin. For suppressing the negative effect caused by nanotubes, the higher temperature initiator combined with the initiator MEKP was used. Dynamic-mechanical Behavior testing was then carried out on the cured sample in order to relate the curing behavior of MWCNTs modified resin suspensions to mechanical response of their resulting nanocomposites. It was revealed that nanocomposites containing MWCNTs possessed larger storage modulus values as well as higher glass transition temperatures (Tg) as compared to those without MWCNTs after using mixed intiators system to improve the degree of cure.

Atef Y. Shenouda ◽  
M. M. S. Sanad

Li2NixFe1−xSiO4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1) samples were prepared by sol–gel process. The crystal structure of prepared samples of Li2NixFe1−xSiO4 was characterized by XRD. The different crystallographic parameters such as crystallite size and lattice cell parameters have been calculated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations were carried out explaining the morphology and function groups of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements are applied. The obtained results indicated that the highest conductivity is achieved for Li2Ni0.4Fe0.6SiO4 electrode compound. It was observed that Li/Li2Ni0.4Fe0.6SiO4 battery has initial discharge capacity of 164 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C rate. The cycle life performance of all Li2NixFe1−xSiO4 batteries was ranged between 100 and 156 mAh g−1 with coulombic efficiency range between 70.9% and 93.9%.

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