Formaldehyde and De/Methylation in Age-Related Cognitive Impairment

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 913
Ting Li ◽  
Yan Wei ◽  
Meihua Qu ◽  
Lixian Mou ◽  
Junye Miao ◽  

Formaldehyde (FA) is a highly reactive substance that is ubiquitous in the environment and is usually considered as a pollutant. In the human body, FA is a product of various metabolic pathways and participates in one-carbon cycle, which provides carbon for the synthesis and modification of bio-compounds, such as DNA, RNA, and amino acids. Endogenous FA plays a role in epigenetic regulation, especially in the methylation and demethylation of DNA, histones, and RNA. Recently, epigenetic alterations associated with FA dysmetabolism have been considered as one of the important features in age-related cognitive impairment (ARCI), suggesting the potential of using FA as a diagnostic biomarker of ARCI. Notably, FA plays multifaceted roles, and, at certain concentrations, it promotes cell proliferation, enhances memory formation, and elongates life span, effects that could also be involved in the aetiology of ARCI. Further investigation of and the regulation of the epigenetics landscape may provide new insights about the aetiology of ARCI and provide novel therapeutic targets.

2017 ◽  
Vol 85 (4) ◽  
pp. 403-437 ◽  
Justine Irving ◽  
Sandra Davis ◽  
Aileen Collier

Purpose can provide a sense of intentionality, guide behavior to achieve personal aims and living objectives, and may offer insight into how and why certain people remain healthy over time. A review of the literature sought to identify contemporary research pertaining to purpose and older adults. Thirty-one studies were selected for evaluation based on inclusion criteria. Research outcomes suggest that greater reported purpose is related to a range of better health and well-being outcomes for older adults. With few exceptions, the literature demonstrates that purpose declines with age. Nevertheless, the potential to experience purpose persists across the life span, by providing opportunities for older adults to continue contributing roles, participate in meaningful activities, and sustain their social value and sense of relevance. Further research could explore how purpose is experienced by the oldest-old age-group, those living within noncommunity settings, and people with age-related cognitive impairment such as dementia.

2019 ◽  
Vol 316 (6) ◽  
pp. H1253-H1266 ◽  
Anna Csiszar ◽  
Stefano Tarantini ◽  
Andriy Yabluchanskiy ◽  
Priya Balasubramanian ◽  
Tamas Kiss ◽  

Age-related alterations in endothelium and the resulting vascular dysfunction critically contribute to a range of pathological conditions associated with old age. To develop therapies rationally that improve vascular health and thereby increase health span and life span in older adults, it will be essential to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to vascular aging. Preclinical studies in model organisms demonstrate that NAD+ availability decreases with age in multiple tissues and that supplemental NAD+ precursors can ameliorate many age-related cellular impairments. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of NAD+-dependent pathways [including the NAD+-using silent information regulator-2-like enzymes and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzymes] and the potential consequences of endothelial NAD+ deficiency in vascular aging. The multifaceted vasoprotective effects of treatments that reverse the age-related decline in cellular NAD+ levels, as well as their potential limitations, are discussed. The preventive and therapeutic potential of NAD+ intermediates as effective, clinically relevant interventions in older adults at risk for ischemic heart disease, vascular cognitive impairment, and other common geriatric conditions and diseases that involve vascular pathologies (e.g., sarcopenia, frailty) are critically discussed. We propose that NAD+ precursors [e.g., nicotinamide (Nam) riboside, Nam mononucleotide, niacin] should be considered as critical components of combination therapies to slow the vascular aging process and increase cardiovascular health span.

2010 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 415-428 ◽  
Lorena Arranz ◽  
Nuria M. De Castro ◽  
Isabel Baeza ◽  
Ianire Maté ◽  
Maria Paz Viveros ◽  

2017 ◽  
Vol 217 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-77 ◽  
Domhnall McHugh ◽  
Jesús Gil

Aging is the major risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Although we are far from understanding the biological basis of aging, research suggests that targeting the aging process itself could ameliorate many age-related pathologies. Senescence is a cellular response characterized by a stable growth arrest and other phenotypic alterations that include a proinflammatory secretome. Senescence plays roles in normal development, maintains tissue homeostasis, and limits tumor progression. However, senescence has also been implicated as a major cause of age-related disease. In this regard, recent experimental evidence has shown that the genetic or pharmacological ablation of senescent cells extends life span and improves health span. Here, we review the cellular and molecular links between cellular senescence and aging and discuss the novel therapeutic avenues that this connection opens.

2014 ◽  
Vol 35 (5) ◽  
pp. 925-928 ◽  
Janet G. van Hell ◽  
Gregory J. Poarch

A wealth of research on experience-related plasticity has shown that specific experiences, such as musical training (Herholz & Zatorre, 2012) or juggling (Draganski et al., 2004), can modify brain function and structure and induce long-term changes in cognitive behavior throughout the life span. In their comprehensive Keynote Article, Baum and Titone focus on the neural and cognitive implications of lifelong experience with multiple languages. They discuss empirical studies on bilingualism, executive control, and aging to enhance our understanding of the frequently observed executive control advantages in bilinguals and how lifelong bilingualism may contribute to the development of cognitive reserve and buffer age-related declines in executive control functions. In reframing these issues in terms of neuroplasticity, Baum and Titone propose to “embrace the inherent individual variability among bilinguals in all its glory” and identify key issues related to individual variability to pave the way to new avenues of research. We fully concur with Baum and Titone's general recommendation to embrace variability among bilinguals to advance our understanding of bilingualism, aging, and neuroplasticity, but we would like to particularly highlight the importance of the earlier stages of second language (L2) learning and the emergence of executive control advantages, a topic we believe has been understudied in this domain. How much bilingual experience is needed to affect executive control?

1996 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-116
Ronald L. Bloom ◽  
Jeanne Mullin ◽  
Peter J. Paternostro

ABSTRACTThis study examines the use and understanding of concordant (e.g., consequently, moreover) and discordant (e.g., rather, contrastively) adverbial conjuncts in the later part of the life span. The participants, 75 neurologically healthy young (mean age 21.8), middle-aged (mean age 51.7), and elderly (mean age 73.1) adults, were examined using procedures by Nippold, Schwarz, and Undlin (1992). Groups were matched for education level. The results indicate a significant decline in processing adverbial conjuncts in the elderly. Discordant adverbial conjuncts especially challenged the linguistic processing abilities of the elderly subjects. The age- related decline in processing adverbial conjuncts.appears to be a specific deficit in linguistic processing that is independent of problems in memory or the effects of exposure to sophisticated language forms.

2013 ◽  
Vol 49 (12) ◽  
pp. 2396-2404 ◽  
Thomas T. Hills ◽  
Rui Mata ◽  
Andreas Wilke ◽  
Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin

2012 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 173-186 ◽  
Daniel Zimprich ◽  
Mathias Allemand ◽  
Margie E. Lachman

2007 ◽  
Vol 60 (9) ◽  
pp. 1275-1288 ◽  
Amanda Beaman ◽  
Dolores Pushkar ◽  
Sarah Etezadi ◽  
Dorothea Bye ◽  
Michael Conway

Based on recent research with young, depressed adults, age-related cognitive declines and decreased autobiographical specificity were hypothesized to predict poorer social problem-solving ability in older than in younger healthy adults. Priming autobiographical memory (ABM) was hypothesized to improve social problem-solving performance for older adults. Subsequent to cognitive tests, old and young participants’ specific ABMs were tested using a cued recall task, followed by a social problem-solving task. The order of the tasks was counterbalanced to test for a priming effect. Autobiographical specificity was related to cognitive ability and predicted social problem-solving ability for both age groups. However, priming of ABM did not improve social problem-solving ability for older or younger adults. This study provides support for the hypothesis that autobiographical memory serves a directive function across the life-span.

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