scholarly journals From Genome Sequencing to CRISPR-Based Genome Editing for Climate-Resilient Forest Trees

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 966
Hieu Xuan Cao ◽  
Giang Thi Ha Vu ◽  
Oliver Gailing

Due to the economic and ecological importance of forest trees, modern breeding and genetic manipulation of forest trees have become increasingly prevalent. The CRISPR-based technology provides a versatile, powerful, and widely accepted tool for analyzing gene function and precise genetic modification in virtually any species but remains largely unexplored in forest species. Rapidly accumulating genetic and genomic resources for forest trees enabled the identification of numerous genes and biological processes that are associated with important traits such as wood quality, drought, or pest resistance, facilitating the selection of suitable gene editing targets. Here, we introduce and discuss the latest progress, opportunities, and challenges of genome sequencing and editing for improving forest sustainability.

2020 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Fırat Kurt

: Oligopeptide transporter 3 (OPT3) proteins are one of the subsets of OPT clade, yet little is known about these transporters. Therefore, homolog OPT3 proteins in several plant species were investigated and characterized using bioinformatical tools. Motif and co-expression analyses showed that OPT3 proteins may be involved in both biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as growth and developmental processes. AtOPT3 usually seemed to take part in Fe homeostasis whereas ZmOPT3 putatively interacted with proteins involved in various biological processes from plant defense system to stress responses. Glutathione (GSH), as a putative alternative chelating agent, was used in the AtOPT3 and ZmOPT3 docking analyses to identify their putative binding residues. The information given in this study will contribute to the understanding of OPT3 proteins’ interactions in various pathways and to the selection of potential ligands for OPT3s.

Laure Fournier ◽  
Lena Costaridou ◽  
Luc Bidaut ◽  
Nicolas Michoux ◽  
Frederic E. Lecouvet ◽  

Abstract Existing quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are associated with known biological tissue characteristics and follow a well-understood path of technical, biological and clinical validation before incorporation into clinical trials. In radiomics, novel data-driven processes extract numerous visually imperceptible statistical features from the imaging data with no a priori assumptions on their correlation with biological processes. The selection of relevant features (radiomic signature) and incorporation into clinical trials therefore requires additional considerations to ensure meaningful imaging endpoints. Also, the number of radiomic features tested means that power calculations would result in sample sizes impossible to achieve within clinical trials. This article examines how the process of standardising and validating data-driven imaging biomarkers differs from those based on biological associations. Radiomic signatures are best developed initially on datasets that represent diversity of acquisition protocols as well as diversity of disease and of normal findings, rather than within clinical trials with standardised and optimised protocols as this would risk the selection of radiomic features being linked to the imaging process rather than the pathology. Normalisation through discretisation and feature harmonisation are essential pre-processing steps. Biological correlation may be performed after the technical and clinical validity of a radiomic signature is established, but is not mandatory. Feature selection may be part of discovery within a radiomics-specific trial or represent exploratory endpoints within an established trial; a previously validated radiomic signature may even be used as a primary/secondary endpoint, particularly if associations are demonstrated with specific biological processes and pathways being targeted within clinical trials. Key Points • Data-driven processes like radiomics risk false discoveries due to high-dimensionality of the dataset compared to sample size, making adequate diversity of the data, cross-validation and external validation essential to mitigate the risks of spurious associations and overfitting. • Use of radiomic signatures within clinical trials requires multistep standardisation of image acquisition, image analysis and data mining processes. • Biological correlation may be established after clinical validation but is not mandatory.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 502
Tinashe Zenda ◽  
Songtao Liu ◽  
Anyi Dong ◽  
Huijun Duan

Adapting to climate change, providing sufficient human food and nutritional needs, and securing sufficient energy supplies will call for a radical transformation from the current conventional adaptation approaches to more broad-based and transformative alternatives. This entails diversifying the agricultural system and boosting productivity of major cereal crops through development of climate-resilient cultivars that can sustainably maintain higher yields under climate change conditions, expanding our focus to crop wild relatives, and better exploitation of underutilized crop species. This is facilitated by the recent developments in plant genomics, such as advances in genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation, as well as gene editing technologies, which have increased the availability of high-quality reference genomes for various model and non-model plant species. This has necessitated genomics-assisted breeding of crops, including underutilized species, consequently broadening genetic variation of the available germplasm; improving the discovery of novel alleles controlling important agronomic traits; and enhancing creation of new crop cultivars with improved tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and superior nutritive quality. Here, therefore, we summarize these recent developments in plant genomics and their application, with particular reference to cereal crops (including underutilized species). Particularly, we discuss genome sequencing approaches, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and genome-wide association (GWAS) studies, directed mutagenesis, plant non-coding RNAs, precise gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and complementation of crop genotyping by crop phenotyping. We then conclude by providing an outlook that, as we step into the future, high-throughput phenotyping, pan-genomics, transposable elements analysis, and machine learning hold much promise for crop improvements related to climate resilience and nutritional superiority.

Chemosensors ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 68
Takahiro Fujisaku ◽  
Ryuji Igarashi ◽  
Masahiro Shirakawa

The dynamics of physical parameters in cells is strongly related to life phenomena; thus, a method to monitor and visualize them on a single-organelle scale would be useful to reveal unknown biological processes. We demonstrate real-time nanometre-scale T1-weighted imaging using a fluorescent nanodiamond. We explored optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) contrast at various values of interval laser pulse (τ), showing that sufficient contrast is obtained by appropriate selection of τ. By this method, we visualized nanometre-scale pH changes using a functionalized nanodiamond whose T1 has a dependence on pH conditions.

2018 ◽  
Valerie Wood ◽  
Antonia Lock ◽  
Midori A. Harris ◽  
Kim Rutherford ◽  
Jürg Bähler ◽  

AbstractThe first decade of genome sequencing stimulated an explosion in the characterization of unknown proteins. More recently, the pace of functional discovery has slowed, leaving around 20% of the proteins even in well-studied model organisms without informative descriptions of their biological roles. Remarkably, many uncharacterized proteins are conserved from yeasts to human, suggesting that they contribute to fundamental biological processes. To fully understand biological systems in health and disease, we need to account for every part of the system. Unstudied proteins thus represent a collective blind spot that limits the progress of both basic and applied biosciences.We use a simple yet powerful metric based on Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms to define characterized and uncharacterized proteins for human, budding yeast, and fission yeast. We then identify a set of conserved but unstudied proteins in S. pombe, and classify them based on a combination of orthogonal attributes determined by large-scale experimental and comparative methods. Finally, we explore possible reasons why these proteins remain neglected, and propose courses of action to raise their profile and thereby reap the benefits of completing the catalog of proteins’ biological roles.

2019 ◽  
Elham Ahmadzadeh ◽  
N. Sumru Bayin ◽  
Xinli Qu ◽  
Aditi Singh ◽  
Linda Madisen ◽  

AbstractThanks to many advances in genetic manipulation, mouse models have become very powerful in their ability to interrogate biological processes. In order to precisely target expression of a gene of interest to particular cell types, intersectional genetic approaches utilizing two promoter/enhancers unique to a cell type are ideal. Within these methodologies, variants that add temporal control of gene expression are the most powerful. We describe the development, validation and application of an intersectional approach that involves three transgenes, requiring the intersection of two promoter/enhancers to target gene expression to precise cell types. Furthermore, the approach utilizes available lines expressing tTA/rTA to control timing of gene expression based on whether doxycycline is absent or present, respectively. We also show that the approach can be extended to other animal models, using chicken embryos. We generated three mouse lines targeted at the Tigre (Igs7) locus with TRE-loxP-tdTomato-loxP upstream of three genes (p21, DTA and Ctgf) and combined them with Cre and tTA/rtTA lines that target expression to the cerebellum and limbs. Our tools will facilitate unraveling biological questions in multiple fields and organisms.Summary statementAhmadzadeh et al. present a collection of four mouse lines and genetic tools for misexpression-mediated manipulation of cellular activity with high spatiotemporal control, in a reversible manner.

eLife ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mark Austin Hanson ◽  
Anna Dostálová ◽  
Camilla Ceroni ◽  
Mickael Poidevin ◽  
Shu Kondo ◽  

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host-encoded antibiotics that combat invading microorganisms. These short, cationic peptides have been implicated in many biological processes, primarily involving innate immunity. In vitro studies have shown AMPs kill bacteria and fungi at physiological concentrations, but little validation has been done in vivo. We utilized CRISPR gene editing to delete most known immune-inducible AMPs of Drosophila, namely: 4 Attacins, 2 Diptericins, Drosocin, Drosomycin, Metchnikowin and Defensin. Using individual and multiple knockouts, including flies lacking these ten AMP genes, we characterize the in vivo function of individual and groups of AMPs against diverse bacterial and fungal pathogens. We found that Drosophila AMPs act primarily against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, contributing either additively or synergistically. We also describe remarkable specificity wherein certain AMPs contribute the bulk of microbicidal activity against specific pathogens, providing functional demonstrations of highly specific AMP-pathogen interactions in an in vivo setting.

2016 ◽  
Vol 65 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-23 ◽  
Silva Šēnhofa ◽  
Mārtiņš Zeps ◽  
Arnis Gailis ◽  
Rolands Kāpostiņš ◽  
Āris Jansons

Abstract Cracks expose wood to fungal infections that significantly affects wood quality, while rapid wound occlusion decreases probability of infections. Assessment of scars was done at four grade scale in three adjacent hybrid aspen trials at the age of 8-10 years in central part of Latvia three years after bark crack occurrence. Occluded wounds were found for 95% of damaged trees, regardless of tree age. Among trees that had cracks wider than 1 cm, 42% had uniformly healed bark, but 7% still had open wounds. Wound development was significantly affected by crack width and length (both p < 0.001), but had no clear relation with tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and relative DBH increment (both p > 0.05). At clonal mean level, scar grade was significantly affected by grade of crack three years earlier and clone (both p < 0.001), but mean DBH of clone had no relation (p > 0.05) to proportion of trees evaluated by any of the scar grades. The results suggest that three years after the bark crack formation most of them had successfully occluded and selection of clones with better diameter growth has no influence on development of cracks.

2015 ◽  
Vol 2015 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Joel Perdiz Arrais ◽  
José Luís Oliveira

High-throughput methods such as next-generation sequencing or DNA microarrays lack precision, as they return hundreds of genes for a single disease profile. Several computational methods applied to physical interaction of protein networks have been successfully used in identification of the best disease candidates for each expression profile. An open problem for these methods is the ability to combine and take advantage of the wealth of biomedical data publicly available. We propose an enhanced method to improve selection of the best disease targets for a multilayer biomedical network that integrates PPI data annotated with stable knowledge from OMIM diseases and GO biological processes. We present a comprehensive validation that demonstrates the advantage of the proposed approach, Recursive Random Walk with Restarts (RecRWR). The obtained results outline the superiority of the proposed approach, RecRWR, in identifying disease candidates, especially with high levels of biological noise and benefiting from all data available.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document