scholarly journals Control of Reactive Oxygen Species through Antioxidant Enzymes Plays a Pivotal Role during the Cultivation of Neopyropia yezoensis

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Zezhong Feng ◽  
Lingjuan Wu ◽  
Zhenjie Sun ◽  
Jiali Yang ◽  
Guiyan Liu ◽  

Neopyropia yezoensis is an economically important marine crop that can survive dehydrating conditions when nets are lifted from seawater. During this process, production of oxygen radicals and the resulting up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway played an important role. However, there were no reports about the significance regarding the protection of seaweed throughout the entire production season. Especially, in new aquatic farms in Shandong Province that were formed when traditional N. yezoensis cultivation moved north. Here, we determined the levels of ABA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), soluble protein, chlorophyll, and cell wall polysaccharides in samples collected at different harvest periods from Jimo aquatic farm, Shandong Province. The activities and expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and antioxidant enzymes in the corresponding samples were also determined. Combined with the monitoring data of sea surface temperature and solar light intensity, we proposed that the cultivation of N. yezoensis in Shandong Province was not affected by high-temperature stress. However, photoinhibition in N. yezoensis usually occurs at noon, especially in March. Both the activities and the expression of NOX and antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated continuously. It is reasonable to speculate that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NOX induced the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes through the ABA signaling pathway. Although antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role during the cultivation of N. yezoensis, the production of ROS also caused a shift in gene expression, accumulation of secondary metabolites, and even decreased the chlorophyll pool size, which eventually led to a decrease in algae assimilation. Accordingly, we suggest that the dehydration of N. yezoensis nets should be adopted when necessary and the extent of dehydration should be paid special consideration to avoid an excessive cellular response caused by ROS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yingfeng Wang ◽  
Xiaoyan Dai ◽  
Gaoqiang Xu ◽  
Zhuoyi Dai ◽  
Peiyu Chen ◽  

Potassium (K+) deficiency severely threatens crop growth and productivity. Calcium (Ca2+) signaling and its sensors play a central role in the response to low-K+ stress. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important Ca2+ sensor. However, the mechanism by which Ca2+ signaling and CaM mediate the response of roots to low-K+ stress remains unclear. In this study, we found that the K+ concentration significantly decreased in both shoots and roots treated with Ca2+ channel blockers, a Ca2+ chelator, and CaM antagonists. Under low-K+ stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, NAD kinase (NADK), and NADP phosphatase (NADPase) decreased. This indicates that antioxidant enzymes, NADK, and NADPase might be downstream target proteins in the Ca2+-CaM signaling pathway, which facilitates K+ uptake in plant roots by mediating ROS homeostasis under low-K+ stress. Moreover, the expression of NtCNGC3, NtCNGC10, K+ channel genes, and transporter genes was significantly downregulated in blocker-treated, chelator-treated, and antagonist-treated plant roots in the low K+ treatment, suggesting that the Ca2+-CaM signaling pathway may mediate K+ uptake by regulating the expression of these genes. Overall, this study shows that the Ca2+-CaM signaling pathway promotes K+ absorption by regulating ROS homeostasis and the expression of K+ uptake-related genes in plant roots under low-K+ stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
V. Jaenen ◽  
S. Fraguas ◽  
K. Bijnens ◽  
M. Heleven ◽  
T. Artois ◽  

AbstractDespite extensive research on molecular pathways controlling the process of regeneration in model organisms, little is known about the actual initiation signals necessary to induce regeneration. Recently, the activation of ERK signaling has been shown to be required to initiate regeneration in planarians. However, how ERK signaling is activated remains unknown. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are well-known early signals necessary for regeneration in several models, including planarians. Still, the probable interplay between ROS and MAPK/ERK has not yet been described. Here, by interfering with major mediators (ROS, EGFR and MAPK/ERK), we were able to identify wound-induced ROS, and specifically H2O2, as upstream cues in the activation of regeneration. Our data demonstrate new relationships between regeneration-related ROS production and MAPK/ERK activation at the earliest regeneration stages, as well as the involvement of the EGFR-signaling pathway. Our results suggest that (1) ROS and/or H2O2 have the potential to rescue regeneration after MEK-inhibition, either by H2O2-treatment or light therapy, (2) ROS and/or H2O2 are required for the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, (3) the EGFR pathway can mediate ROS production and the activation of MAPK/ERK during planarian regeneration.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (14) ◽  
pp. 4138
Yeon-Jin Cho ◽  
Sun-Hye Choi ◽  
Ra-Mi Lee ◽  
Han-Sung Cho ◽  
Hyewhon Rhim ◽  

Gintonin is a kind of ginseng-derived glycolipoprotein that acts as an exogenous LPA receptor ligand. Gintonin has in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects; however, little is known about the cellular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection. In the present study, we aimed to clarify how gintonin attenuates iodoacetic acid (IAA)-induced oxidative stress. The mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 was used. Gintonin treatment significantly attenuated IAA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, ATP depletion, and cell death. However, treatment with Ki16425, an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, suppressed the neuroprotective effects of gintonin. Gintonin elicited [Ca2⁺]i transients in HT22 cells. Gintonin-mediated [Ca2⁺]i transients through the LPA1 receptor-PLC-IP3 signaling pathway were coupled to increase both the expression and release of BDNF. The released BDNF activated the TrkB receptor. Induction of TrkB phosphorylation was further linked to Akt activation. Phosphorylated Akt reduced IAA-induced oxidative stress and increased cell survival. Our results indicate that gintonin attenuated IAA-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells by activating the LPA1 receptor-BDNF-TrkB-Akt signaling pathway. One of the gintonin-mediated neuroprotective effects may be achieved via anti-oxidative stress in nervous systems.

2017 ◽  
Vol 83 (22) ◽  
Matthew De Furio ◽  
Sang Joon Ahn ◽  
Robert A. Burne ◽  
Stephen J. Hagen

ABSTRACTThe dental caries pathogenStreptococcus mutansis continually exposed to several types of stress in the oral biofilm environment. Oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species has a major impact on the establishment, persistence, and virulence ofS. mutans. Here, we combined fluorescent reporter-promoter fusions with single-cell imaging to study the effects of reactive oxygen species on activation of genetic competence inS. mutans. Exposure to paraquat, which generates superoxide anion, produced a qualitatively different effect on activation of expression of the gene for the master competence regulator, ComX, than did treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can yield hydroxyl radical. Paraquat suppressed peptide-mediated induction ofcomXin a progressive and cumulative fashion, whereas the response to H2O2displayed a strong threshold behavior. Low concentrations of H2O2had little effect on induction ofcomXor the bacteriocin genecipB, but expression of these genes declined sharply if extracellular H2O2exceeded a threshold concentration. These effects were not due to decreased reporter gene fluorescence. Two different threshold concentrations were observed in the response to H2O2, depending on the gene promoter that was analyzed and the pathway by which the competence regulon was stimulated. The results show that paraquat and H2O2affect theS. mutanscompetence signaling pathway differently, and that some portions of the competence signaling pathway are more sensitive to oxidative stress than others.IMPORTANCEStreptococcus mutansinhabits the oral biofilm, where it plays an important role in the development of dental caries. Environmental stresses such as oxidative stress influence the growth ofS. mutansand its important virulence-associated behaviors, such as genetic competence.S. mutanscompetence development is a complex behavior that involves two different signaling peptides and can exhibit cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Although oxidative stress is known to influenceS. mutanscompetence, it is not understood how oxidative stress interacts with the peptide signaling or affects heterogeneity. In this study, we used fluorescent reporters to probe the effect of reactive oxygen species on competence signaling at the single-cell level. Our data show that different reactive oxygen species have different effects onS. mutanscompetence, and that some portions of the signaling pathway are more acutely sensitive to oxidative stress than others.

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