scholarly journals Intermittent Fasting and Fat Mass: What Is the Clinical Magnitude?

Obesities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Heitor O. Santos

Clinical studies addressing the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) diets have evoked interest in the treatment of obesity. Herein, the overall effects of IF regimens on fat-mass loss are explained in a brief review through a recent literature update. To date, human studies show a reduction in fat mass from 0.7 to 11.3 kg after IF regimens, in which the duration of interventions ranges from two weeks to one year. In light of this, IF regimens can be considered a reasonable approach to weight (fat mass) loss. However, the benefits of IF regimens occur thanks to energy restriction and cannot hence be considered the best dietary protocol compared to conventional diets.

2018 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Line Quist Bendtsen ◽  
Trine Blædel ◽  
Jacob Bak Holm ◽  
Janne Kunchel Lorenzen ◽  
Alicja Budek Mark ◽  

During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat-mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition, and fecal fat excretion over 24 weeks. Secondary objectives included fecal energy and calcium excretion, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota. In a randomized, parallel-arm intervention study, 11 men and 69 women (body mass index, 30.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2; age, 44 ± 1 years) were allocated to a 500-kcal (2100 kJ) –deficit diet that was either high (HD: 1500 mg calcium/day) or low (LD: 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Habitual calcium intake was ∼1000 mg/day. Body weight loss (HD: –6.6 ± 1.3 kg, LD: –7.9 ± 1.5 kg, P = 0.73), fat-mass loss (HD: –7.8% ± 1.3%, LD: –8.5% ± 1.1%, P = 0.76), changes in fecal fat excretion (HD: –0.57 ± 0.76 g, LD: 0.46 ± 0.70 g, P = 0.12), and microbiota composition were similar for the groups over 24 weeks. However, total fat-mass loss was positively associated with relative abundance of Papillibacter (P = 0.017) independent of diet group. Consumption of a high-dairy diet did not increase fecal fat or accelerate weight and fat-mass loss beyond energy restriction over 24 weeks in overweight and obese adults with a habitual calcium intake of ∼1000 mg/day. However, this study indicates that Papillibacter is involved in body compositional changes.

2016 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 23
W. Stonehouse ◽  
T. Wycherley ◽  
N. Luscombe-Marsh ◽  
P. Taylor ◽  
G. Brinkworth ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 2349
Stephen Keenan ◽  
Matthew B. Cooke ◽  
Regina Belski

Diets utilising intermittent fasting (IF) as a strategic method to manipulate body composition have recently grown in popularity, however, dietary practices involving fasting have also been followed for centuries for religious reasons (i.e., Ramadan). Regardless of the reasons for engaging in IF, the impacts on lean body mass (LBM) may be detrimental. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training promotes LBM accrual, however, whether this still occurs during IF is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this review is to systematically analyse human studies investigating the effects of variations of IF combined with resistance training on changes in LBM in previously sedentary or trained (non-elite) individuals. Changes in body weight and fat mass, and protocol adherence were assessed as a secondary objective. This review followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for articles investigating IF, combined with resistance training that reported measures of body composition. Eight studies met the eligibility criteria. LBM was generally maintained, while one study reported a significant increase in LBM. Body fat mass or percentage was significantly reduced in five of eight studies. Results suggest that IF paired with resistance training generally maintains LBM, and can also promote fat loss. Future research should examine longer-term effects of various forms of IF combined with resistance training compared to traditional forms of energy restriction. Prospero registration CRD42018103867.

Circulation ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 142 (Suppl_3) ◽  
Maria Pini

Introduction: Sedentary lifestyle and excessive calorie intake are risk factors for CVD. We have demonstrated the cardioprotective effect of exercise in aged mice and the critical role of visceral adiposity and its profibrotic secretome in increasing cardiovascular risks in obesity and aging. The association between exercise, lowered plasma leptin and reduced inflammatory leukocytes has been recently shown in patients with atherosclerosis. It remains unclear whether elevated plasma leptin can preserve or alter cardiovascular function in obesity. Methods: We analyzed the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6J male mice on the heart in terms of function, structure, histology and key molecular markers. Two interventions were used: 1) active fat mass loss via exercise (daily swimming) during HFD; 2) passive fat mass loss via surgical removal of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT lipectomy) followed by HFD. Results: HFD increased body weight and adiposity, leading to higher plasma leptin, glucose and insulin levels, compared to control diet (CD) mice. HFD impaired left ventricle (LV) structure (hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis) and cardiac function (echocardiography, in vivo hemodynamics). Atria of HFD mice had enhanced pro-inflammatory protein production. Exercise reduced circulating leptin levels in HFD mice by 50%, in line with fat mass loss. In contrast, lipectomy reduced visceral fat mass, but body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin did not change. Both exercise and VAT lipectomy improved cardiac contractility, reversed collagen deposition and oxidative stress in HFD mice. Both interventions downregulated LV pro-inflammatory markers. We proved the role of leptin in cardiac remodeling in vitro by incubating primary cardiac fibroblasts with hyperleptinemic plasma from HFD mice. Remarkably, plasma from HFD-EX (exercise) suppressed the fibro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory responses of cardiac fibroblasts. Conclusions: Leptin directly contribute to cardiac fibrosis in obesity via activation and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. Understanding how leptin signals to the heart might have implications in a wide range of CVD, potentially helping early stratification and personalized care.

2020 ◽  
Vol 120 (6) ◽  
pp. 1277-1287
Paola Gonzalo-Encabo ◽  
David Valadés ◽  
Natalio García-Honduvilla ◽  
Ana de Cos Blanco ◽  
Christine M. Friedenreich ◽  

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