scholarly journals Implementation of Speed-Efficient Key-Scheduling Process of AES for Secure Storage and Transmission of Data

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8347
Thanikodi Manoj Kumar ◽  
Kavitha Rani Balmuri ◽  
Adam Marchewka ◽  
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari ◽  
Srinivas Konda

Nowadays, a large number of digital data are transmitted worldwide using wireless communications. Therefore, data security is a significant task in communication to prevent cybercrimes and avoid information loss. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a highly efficient secure mechanism that outperforms other symmetric key cryptographic algorithms using message secrecy. However, AES is efficient in terms of software and hardware implementation, and numerous modifications are done in the conventional AES architecture to improve the performance. This research article proposes a significant modification to the AES architecture’s key expansion section to increase the speed of producing subkeys. The fork–join model of key expansion (FJMKE) architecture is developed to improve the speed of the subkey generation process, whereas the hardware resources of AES are minimized by avoiding the frequent computation of secret keys. The AES-FJMKE architecture generates all of the required subkeys in less than half the time required by the conventional architecture. The proposed AES-FJMKE architecture is designed and simulated using the Xilinx ISE 5.1 software. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) behaviour of the AES-FJMKE architecture is analysed by means of performance count for hardware resources, delay, and operating frequency. The existing AES architectures such as typical AES, AES-PNSG, AES-AT, AES-BE, ISAES, AES-RS, and AES-MPPRM are used to evaluate the efficiency of AES-FJMKE. The AES-FJMKE implemented using Spartan 6 FPGA used fewer slices (i.e., 76) than the AES-RS.

2008 ◽  
Vol 2008 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Y. Guillemenet ◽  
L. Torres ◽  
G. Sassatelli ◽  
N. Bruchon

This paper describes the integration of field-induced magnetic switching (FIMS) and thermally assisted switching (TAS) magnetic random access memories in FPGA design. The nonvolatility of the latter is achieved through the use of magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) in the MRAM cell. A thermally assisted switching scheme helps to reduce power consumption during write operation in comparison to the writing scheme in the FIMS-MTJ device. Moreover, the nonvolatility of such a design based on either an FIMS or a TAS writing scheme should reduce both power consumption and configuration time required at each power up of the circuit in comparison to classical SRAM-based FPGAs. A real-time reconfigurable (RTR) micro-FPGA using FIMS-MRAM or TAS-MRAM allows dynamic reconfiguration mechanisms, while featuring simple design architecture.

Farida Memon ◽  
Aamir Hussain Memon ◽  
Shahnawaz Talpur ◽  
Fayaz Ahmed Memon ◽  
Rafia Naz Memon

In this paper a novel VHDL design procedure of depth estimation algorithm using HDL (Hardware Description Language) Coder is presented. A framework is developed that takes depth estimation algorithm described in MATLAB as input and generates VHDL code, which dramatically decreases the time required to implement an application on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays). In the first phase, design is carriedout in MATLAB. Using HDL Coder, MATLAB floating- point design is converted to an efficient fixed-point design and generated VHDL Code and test-bench from fixed point MATLAB code. Further, the generated VHDL code of design is verified with co-simulation using Mentor Graphic ModelSim10.3d software. Simulation results are presented which indicate that VHDL simulations match with the MATLAB simulations and confirm the efficiency of presented methodology.

Electronics ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1529 ◽  
Stefania Perri ◽  
Fanny Spagnolo ◽  
Fabio Frustaci ◽  
Pasquale Corsonello

Approximate computing represents a powerful technique to reduce energy consumption and computational delay in error-resilient applications, such as multimedia processing, machine learning, and many others. In these contexts, designing efficient digital data-paths is a crucial concern. For this reason, the addition operation has received a great deal of attention. However, most of the approximate adders proposed in the literature are oriented to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), and their deployment on different devices, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), appears to be unfeasible (or at least ineffective). This paper presents a novel approximate addition technique thought to efficiently exploit the configurable resources available within an FPGA device. The proposed approximation strategy sums the k least significant bits two-by-two by using 4-input Look-up-Tables (LUTs), each performing a precise 2-bit addition with the zeroed carry-in. In comparison with several FPGA-based approximate adders in the existing literature, the novel adder achieves markedly improved error characteristics without compromising either the power consumption or the delay. As an example, when implemented within the Artix-7 xc7a100tcsg324-3 chip, the 32-bit adder designed as proposed here with k = 8 performs as fast as its competitors and reduces the Mean Error Distance (MED) by up to 72% over the state-of-the-art approximate adders, with an energy penalty of just 8% in the worst scenario. The integration of the new approximate adder within a more complex application, such as the 2D digital image filtering, has shown even better results. In such a case, the MED is reduced by up to 97% with respect to the FPGA-based counterparts proposed in the literature.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. 2108
Mohamed Yassine Allani ◽  
Jamel Riahi ◽  
Silvano Vergura ◽  
Abdelkader Mami

The development and optimization of a hybrid system composed of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, converters, and batteries connected to the grid, is first presented. To generate the maximum power, two maximum power point tracker controllers based on fuzzy logic are required and a battery controller is used for the regulation of the DC voltage. When the power source varies, a high-voltage supply is incorporated (high gain DC-DC converter controlled by fuzzy logic) to boost the 24 V provided by the DC bus to the inverter voltage of about 400 V and to reduce energy losses to maximize the system performance. The inverter and the LCL filter allow for the integration of this hybrid system with AC loads and the grid. Moreover, a hardware solution for the field programmable gate arrays-based implementation of the controllers is proposed. The combination of these controllers was synthesized using the Integrated Synthesis Environment Design Suite software (Version: 14.7, City: Tunis, Country: Tunisia) and was successfully implemented on Field Programmable Gate Arrays Spartan 3E. The innovative design provides a suitable architecture based on power converters and control strategies that are dedicated to the proposed hybrid system to ensure system reliability. This implementation can provide a high level of flexibility that can facilitate the upgrade of a control system by simply updating or modifying the proposed algorithm running on the field programmable gate arrays board. The simulation results, using Matlab/Simulink (Version: 2016b, City: Tunis, Country: Tunisia, verify the efficiency of the proposed solution when the environmental conditions change. This study focused on the development and optimization of an electrical system control strategy to manage the produced energy and to coordinate the performance of the hybrid energy system. The paper proposes a combined photovoltaic and wind energy system, supported by a battery acting as an energy storage system. In addition, a bi-directional converter charges/discharges the battery, while a high-voltage gain converter connects them to the DC bus. The use of a battery is useful to compensate for the mismatch between the power demanded by the load and the power generated by the hybrid energy systems. The proposed field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)-based controllers ensure a fast time response by making control executable in real time.

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